# Latex Paragraph Title Format In An Essay

## Latex Macros from CS Press

%make two column with no page numbering, default is 10-point \documentstyle[twocolumn]{article} \pagestyle{empty} %set dimensions of columns, gap between columns, and paragraph indent \setlength{\textheight}{8.75in} \setlength{\columnsep}{2.0pc} \setlength{\textwidth}{6.8in} \setlength{\footheight}{0.0in} \setlength{\topmargin}{0.25in} \setlength{\headheight}{0.0in} \setlength{\headsep}{0.0in} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-.19in} \setlength{\parindent}{1pc} \makeatletter %as Latex considers descenders in its calculation of interline spacing, %to get 12 point spacing for normalsize text, must set it to 10 points \def\@normalsize{\@setsize\normalsize{10pt}\xpt\@xpt \abovedisplayskip 10pt plus2pt minus5pt\belowdisplayskip \abovedisplayskip \abovedisplayshortskip \z@ plus3pt\belowdisplayshortskip 6pt plus3pt minus3pt\let\@listi\@listI} %need an 11 pt font size for subsection and abstract headings \def\subsize{\@setsize\subsize{12pt}\xipt\@xipt} %make section titles bold and 12 point, 2 blank lines before, 1 after \def\section{\@startsection {section}{1}{\z@}{1.0ex plus 1ex minus .2ex}{.2ex plus .2ex}{\large\bf}} %make subsection titles bold and 11 point, 1 blank line before, 1 after \def\subsection{\@startsection {subsection}{2}{\z@}{.2ex plus 1ex} {.2ex plus .2ex}{\subsize\bf}} \makeatother \begin{document} %don't want date printed \date{} %make title bold and 14 pt font (Latex default is non-bold, 16pt) \title{\Large\bf My Wonderful Article in IEEE Format} %for single author (just remove % characters) %\author{I. M. Author \\ % My Department \\ % My Institute \\ % My City, STATE, zip} %for two authors (this is what is printed) \author{\begin{tabular}[t]{c@{\extracolsep{8em}}c} I. M. Author & M. Y. Coauthor \\ \\ My Department & Coauthor Department \\ My Institute & Coauthor Institute \\ City, STATE~~zipcode & City, STATE~~zipcode \end{tabular}} \maketitle \thispagestyle{empty} \subsection*{\centering Abstract} %IEEE allows italicized abstract {\em This is the abstract of my paper. It must fit within the size allowed, which is about 3 inches, including section title, which is 11 point bold font. If you don't want the text in italics, simply remove the 'em' command and the curly braces which bound the abstract text. If you have em commands within an italicized abstract, the text will come out as normal (non-italicized) text. } \section{Introduction} Here is my introduction text. There are 2 blank lines before the section heading and one afterwards. Heading text is 12 point bold font. Paragraphs are not indented. I may want a numbered subsection, which is done as follows. \subsection{Previous Work} In subsections there is 1 blank line before the section heading and one afterwards. Heading text is 11 point bold font. Paragraphs are indented one pica. There is no blank line between paragraphs. Throughout I may cite references of the form \cite{key:foo} or \cite{foo:baz}, and LaTeX will keep track of numbering. The numbers are based on the order you place them in the bibliography, not the order they appear in the text. They should (I believe) be in alphabetical order. LaTex will put square brackets about the number within the text of your paper. For those of you new to the bibliography package, you may have to run the latex process twice to allow all references to be resolved. You will get a warning about a missing .aux file. Just rerun latex and it will be ok. \section{Summary and Conclusions} This template will get you through the minimum article, i.e. no figures or equations. To include those, please refer to your LaTeX manual and the IEEE publications guidelines. Good Luck! %this is how to do an unnumbered subsection \subsection*{Acknowledgments} This is how to do an unnumbered subsection, which comes out in 11 point bold font. Here I thank my colleagues, especially Mike Gennert, who know more about Tex and Latex than I. \begin{thebibliography}{9} \bibitem{key:foo} I. M. Author, Some Related Article I Wrote,'' {\em Some Fine Journal}, Vol. 17, pp. 1-100, 1987. \bibitem{foo:baz} A. N. Expert, {\em A Book He Wrote,} His Publisher, 1989. \end{thebibliography} \end{document}

I'd like to take a crack at this question, because 5 years ago I landed here and thought was the best way to do this. That may or may not be true.

The class settings are perhaps obvious to experts, but rather obscure to new users of LaTeX.

## \$(kpsewhich -var-value TEXMFDIST)/tex/latex/base/article.cls

For the 2016 version, this would result in on a Unix-based system.

The relevant parts of the article class extracted from the file.

• = 0, see What does \z@ do?
• = the TeX register that actually holds the integer which is created by the LaTeX macro (normally only for backend, hence the ) and which is made globally accessible, see What are the differences between TeX counts and LaTeX counters?
• = register with counter equal to -1, see What do \m@ne‎ and \@M do in the definition of \@makechapterhead?
• = = = 10000, see above.
• = leave vertical mode [and implicitly enter horizontal mode], see Function and usage of \leavevmode

Use \leavevmode for all macros which could be used at the begin of the paragraph and add horizontal boxes by themselves (e.g. in form of text).

• opposed to LaTeX kernel macro that is part of . It is setting the to false after a sectioning command such that paragraphs directly following headings are not intended. Subsequent paragraphs will be indented when the expansion of this becomes , see http://mirror.easyname.at/ctan/macros/latex/required/tools/indentfirst.pdf
• in e.g. is effectively a switcher between the starred version (s for starred part) and the non-starred version . This enables to influence which macro is expanded, see What does \secdef do?
• LaTeX macro = TeX macro , = , see What is glue stretching?
• LaTeX macro = TeX macro , see above.
• = amount of space indented
• = A LaTeX kernel macro. It tells TeX to left-align something with disregard to the TeX typographical point system that makes the proper inter-word space adjustments for a pretty, squared paragraph shape (full justification). = , see Combining leftskip, rightskip and raggedright
• LaTeX macro that deals with post-heading stuff e.g. preventing a page break between the heading and next line (usually a club line of a paragraph), or that line (club) with its next line. The first is done using logic, the latter with =maximum penalty.

## Editing Sections

Just looking around at the can be very helpful, but there are many commands using the sign, which helps ensure that user-level commands will not overlap with "kernel" commands i.e. you will unlikely put in your preamble (if you did, you would get an error, because TeX expects all characters in macro names/command sequence names to have category code 11), see What do \makeatletter and \makeatother do? and What are category codes? for details.

You could redefine the sections to your specifications by using . Note that you need to temporarily change the category code of to access the kernel commands. Either surround your definition with

OR

## Grandfather

Note that the grandfather of all sectioning commands/headings, except part, is . Understanding it can be tricky, but reveals its definition:

In summary:

For details, see see Where can I find help files or documentation for commands like \@startsection for LaTeX?.

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