SOURCE: "The Conflict of Personality in César Vallejo's Poemas Humanos," in Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, Vol. XLIII, No. 1, January, 1965, pp. 47-55.
[In the excerpt below, Higgins discusses Vallejo's Human Poems, contending that this work demonstrates Vallejo's preoccupation with the theme of "the individual… continually at war with himself '
[Vallejo's] last and definitive book of verse, Poemas humanos, was published posthumously in 1939 and most of the poems were written in the latter years of Vallejo's life. Even the most superficial reading of this volume is enough to reveal what Guillermo de Torre [in "Reconocimiento critico de César Vallejo," Revista Iberoamericana, XXV (1960)] has called 'la propensión al desdoblamiento, al verse a si mismo como un otro'. One is struck by the number of poems in which Vallejo is engaged in dialogue with himself:
Tú surfres de una glandula endocrinica, se ve.
Y bien? Te sana el metaloide pálido?
In other poems the poet dissociates himself completely from the figure of César Vallejo:Yo no sufro este dolor come César Vallejo. César Vallejo, te odio con ternura! César Vallejo ha muerto.
Elsewhere he puts his own existence in doubt and envisages the possibility of his being someone else:A lo mejor, soy otro.
At one point he speaks of himself as being two different people:
Sé que hay una persona
que me busca …
Sé que hay una persona compuesta de mis partes,
a la que integro cuando va mi talle
cabalgando en su exacta piedrecilla.
As [Xavier Abril in his César Vallejo o la teoría póetica, 1963] suggests, there appears to be some connexion between the theme of the double of 1923 and Vallejo's concern in the later years of his life to present himself as a personality in conflict: 'Poemas humanos ratifica, con su obsesión del "otro," el motivo del "doble" revelado en "Fabla salvaje".
What is the connexion? Is one to assume that Vallejo himself was a schizophrenic like Balta Espinar? It is well known that psychological factors, notably a mother fixation, a persecution complex and a tendency to obsessions played an important role in Vallejo's life and work. On the other hand, his poetry contains no references to schizophrenia as such, and from the little that is known of his life there is no evidence of the illness. While Vallejo is obviously working out his own personal problems to some extent in his poetry, it seems certain he did not suffer from the illness known as schizophrenia. The poet himself warns us against such a conclusion and offers us a clue to the interpretation of this conflict of personality:
Pues de lo que hablo no es
sino de lo que pasa en esa epoca, y
de lo que ocurre en China y en Espafia, y en el mundo.
(Walt Whitman tenia un pecho suavisimo y respiraba
y nadie sabe lo que él hacia cuando lloraba en su comedor).
Vallejo is here claiming that this poetry, like Whitman's, is not concerned with his private preoccupations but with the situation of modern man. The implication is that this conflict of personality is not a mental illness but a moral condition he shares with other men. It would seem plausible that in 1923 Vallejo was interested in the mental illness of Balta Espinar because he saw in it the image of a moral illness affecting the whole of mankind. By the time he came to write Poemas humanos he had become obsessed with this idea and he presents man as a being at war with himself. This is confirmed by a line defining man asel bimano, el muy bruto, el muy filósofo
Thus, it is man, torn by the different parts of his nature—in this case by the conflict between body and spirit—rather than the poet himself, who is pursued and haunted by a double.
For Vallejo the tragedy of man is that he aspires to an integrated, unified existence, but finds himself divided in a state of inner discord. There is in man an essential duality: the divergent parts of his nature are in constant conflict and are never able to fuse together and harmonize. Basically, Vallejo sees this conflict as one between that part of man which longs to be free to develop its potentialities and to forge an existence which will be spiritually fulfilling, and that part of him which is determined and limited by forces outside his control: heredity, environment, education, physical and psychological needs. This is the theme of the prose poem "Algo te identifica" where technical features—parallel sentences, each term of the one corresponding and standing in opposition to a term in the other; the opposition of terms within a sentence—contribute to the picture of forces in conflict. The personality that aspires to liberty cannot break free from the claims of the predetermined personality:
Algo te identifica con el que se aleja de ti, y es la
facultad comuin de volvver: de ahi tu mas grande pesadumbre.
Neither can it conform to the limits imposed upon it:
Algo te separa del que se queda contigo, y es la
esclavitud comuin de partir: de ahi tus mas nimios regocijos.
The result is that the individual is continually at war with himself, one part of him yearning to move off in search of freedom and fulfilment but held back by the inert weight of the other. To convey this idea Vallejo employs one of his most characteristic techniques: the juxtaposition of words which contradict each other. Men, he says,yacen marchando al son de las fronteras o, simplemente, marcan el paso inmóvil en el borde del mundo.
This conflict is occasionally presented in terms of the tension between the natural and the civilized man. The individual seeks to develop the fundamental tendencies of his nature, to build up his own personal style of life, but the social man has to conform to the claims of society. He is forced to play the role of businessman, schoolteacher or labourer, adopting the habits and the uniform of the part:
… el hombre procede suavemente del trabajo
y repercute jefe, suena subordinado.
For Vallejo all social activity is based on postures. Man rises in the morning and does not start living until he has dressed himself in a personality which he wears all the waking day:He aquí que boy saludo, me pongo el cuello y vivo.
Thus dressed, he is ready to face the world and to attend to his affairs, but in so doing he has lost contact with the essential part of himself and produced a split in his personality.Tal me recibo de hombre, tal más bien me despido.
In general, however, it is on the conflict between man's spiritual nature and the physical, between the 'filósofo' and the 'bruto', that Vallejo fixes his attention. As Andre Coyne has pointed out [in his César Vallejo ysu obra poética, 1958], Poemas humanos is characterized by 'la obsesión de la animalidad.' Vallejo makes references to Darwin and, in accordance with his theory of evolution, considers man to be little more than an advanced animal species. This attitude leads him to employ the names of animals to designate man. The latter is varyingly described as 'mamifero', 'mono', 'paquidermo', 'cetáceo', 'plesiosaurio', 'kanguro', 'jumento', 'conejo', 'elefante', but perhaps the most crushing epithet is that of 'antropoide'. For if, instead of taking anthropoid to mean an animal of the ape family, one interprets it literally, one arrives at the ultimate irony of seeing...
For the football club, see Club Deportivo Universidad César Vallejo. For the volleyball club, see CV Universidad César Vallejo. For the university, see Cesar Vallejo University.
This name uses Spanish naming customs: the first or paternal family name is Vallejo and the second or maternal family name is Mendoza.
César Abraham Vallejo Mendoza (March 16, 1892 – April 15, 1938) was a Peruvian poet, writer, playwright, and journalist. Although he published only three books of poetry during his lifetime, he is considered one of the great poetic innovators of the 20th century in any language. He was always a step ahead of literary currents, and each of his books was distinct from the others, and, in its own sense, revolutionary. Thomas Merton called him "the greatest universal poet since Dante". The late British poet, critic and biographer Martin Seymour-Smith, a leading authority on world literature, called Vallejo "the greatest twentieth-century poet in any language." He was a member of the intellectual community called North Group formed in the Peruvian north coastal city of Trujillo.
Clayton Eshleman and José Rubia Barcia's translation of The Complete Posthumous Poetry of César Vallejo won the National Book Award for translation in 1979.
César Vallejo was born to Francisco de Paula Vallejo Benítez and María de los Santos Mendoza Gurrionero in Santiago de Chuco, a remote village in the Peruvian Andes. He was the youngest of eleven children. His grandfathers were both Spanish priests, and his grandmothers were both indigenous Peruvians.
Lack of funds forced him to withdraw from his studies for a time and work at a sugar plantation, the Roma Hacienda, where he witnessed the exploitation of agrarian workers firsthand, an experience which would have an important impact on his politics and aesthetics. Vallejo received a BA in Spanish literature in 1915, the same year that he became acquainted with the bohemia of Trujillo, in particular with APRA co-founders Antenor Orrego and Victor Raul Haya de la Torre.
In 1911 Vallejo moved to Lima, where he studied at National University of San Marcos, read, worked as a schoolteacher, and came into contact with the artistic and political avant-garde. While in Lima, he also produced his first poetry collection, Los heraldos negros. Despite its stated publication year of 1918, the book was actually published a year later. It is also heavily influenced by the poetry and other writings of fellow Peruvian Manuel González Prada, who had only recently died. Vallejo then suffered a number of calamities over the next few years: he refused to marry a woman with whom he had an affair and thus lost his teaching post.
His mother died in 1918. In May 1920, homesickness drove him to return to Santiago de Chuco. On the first of August, the house belonging to the Santa María Calderón family, who transported merchandise and alcohol by pack animals from the coast, was looted and set on fire. Vallejo was unjustly accused as a both a participant and instigator of the act. He hid but was discovered, arrested, and thrown in a Trujillo jail where he would remain for 112 days (From November 6, 1920 until February 26, 1921). On December 24, 1920 he won second place (first place was declared void) from the city hall of Trujillo for the poem, "Fabla de gesta (Tribute to Marqués de Torre Tagle)". Vallejo competed by hiding his identity with a pseudonym in an attempt to give impartiality to the competition.
In the work, "Vallejo en los infiernos", the author, a practicing lawyer, Eduardo González Viaña revealed key pieces of judicial documentation against the poet and showed deliberate fabrications by the judge and his enemies to imprison him. It indicted the victims but excluded prosecution to those criminally involved. They invented testimonies and attributed them to people who subsequently declared that they had never been to Santiago de Chuco, the place of the crime. Finally, the material author was escorted to Trujillo to testify before the Supreme Court. However, on the long journey, the gendarmes, french police officers, that guarded him, shot and killed him under the pretext that he had attempted to escape. Moreover, the author has investigated the other actions of the judge ad hoc. In truth, he was a lawyer for the large reed business "Casagrande" and of the "Quiruvilca" mine where the employees operated without a schedule and were victims of horrific working conditions. All of this highlights the political character of the criminal proceedings. With Vallejo it had tried to mock his generation, university students that attempted to rise up against the injustice and embraced anarchism and socialism, utopias of the century.
The judicial process was never closed. The poet left jail on behalf of a temporary release. Years later in Europe, he knew that he could never return to his home country. Jail and the "hells" revealed in this novel awaited him with an open door.
In 2007 the Judiciary of Peru vindicated Vallejo's memory in a ceremony calling to the poet unfairly accused. Nonetheless, 1922 he published his second volume of poetry, Trilce, which is still considered one of the most radically avant-garde poetry collections in the Spanish language. After publishing the short story collections Escalas melografiadas and Fabla salvaje in 1923, Vallejo emigrated to Europe under the threat of further incarceration and remained there until his death in Paris in 1938.
His European years found him living in dire poverty in Paris, with the exception of three trips to the USSR and a couple of years in the early 1930s spent in exile in Spain. In those years he shared the poverty with Pablo Picasso. In 1926 he met his first French mistress, Henriette Maisse, with whom he lived until a breakup in October 1928. In 1927 he had formally met Georgette Marie Philippart Travers (see Georgette Vallejo), whom he had seen when she was 17 and lived in his neighborhood. This was also the year of his first trip to Russia. They eventually became lovers, much to the dismay of her mother. Georgette traveled with him to Spain the end of December 1930 and returned in January 1932. In 1930 the Spanish government awarded him a modest author's grant. When he returned to Paris, he also went on to Russia to participate in the International Congress of Writers' Solidarity towards the Soviet Regime (not to be confused with the First Congress of Soviet Writers of 1934, which solidified the parameters for Socialist Realism). Back in Paris Vallejo married Georgette Philippart in 1934. His wife remained a controversial figure concerning the publication of Vallejo's works for many years after his death.
A regular cultural contributor to weeklies in Lima, Vallejo also sent sporadic articles to newspapers and magazines in other parts of Latin America, Spain, Italy, and France. His USSR trips also led to two books of reportage he was able to get published early in the 1930s. Vallejo also prepared several theatrical works never performed during his lifetime, among them his drama Colacho Hermanos, o Los Presidentes de America, which shares content with another work he completed during this period, the socialist-realist novel El Tungsteno. He even wrote a children's book, Paco Yunque. After becoming emotionally and intellectually involved in the Spanish Civil War, Vallejo had a final burst of poetic activity in the late 1930s, producing two books of poetry (both published posthumously) whose titles and proper organization remain a matter of debate: they were published as Poemas humanos and España, aparta de mí este cáliz. He died on April 15, 1938, of an unknown illness now thought to have been a form of malaria, an event fictionalized in Roberto Bolaño's novel Monsieur Pain. Originally buried in the Montrouge Cemetery, Vallejo's remains are now in the Cimetière du Montparnasse in Paris.
Death in Paris
At the beginning of 1938, he worked as a language and literature professor in Paris, but in March, he suffered from physical exhaustion. On March 24 he was hospitalized for an unknown disease (it was later understood that it was the reactivation of a malaria disease he had suffered as a child) and on April 7 and 8, he went into critical condition. He died a week later, on the 15th, a holy, rainy Friday in Paris, but not on a Thursday, as he supposedly predicted in his poem «"Black Stone on a White Stone"». He was embalmed. His funeral eulogy was written by the French writer, Louis Aragon. On the 19th, his remains were transferred to the Mansion of Culture and later to the Montrouge cemetery.
After thirty-two years of rest in the Montrouge cemetery, on April 3, 1970, his widowed wife, Georgette Vallejo, moved his remains to the Montparnasse cemetery, writing in his epitaph:
“I’ve snowed so much for you to sleep.”
Los Heraldos Negros (1919)
Los Heraldos Negros (The Black Messengers) was completed in 1918, but not published until 1919. Robert Bly, in the 1993 edited volume Neruda and Vallejo: Selected Poems, describes it as "a staggering book, sensual, prophetic, affectionate, wild," and as "the greatest single collection of poems I have ever read." The title is likely suggestive of the four horsemen of the apocalypse, as the book itself touches on topics of religiosity, life and death.
- Poem:The black heralds
- There are blows in life, so powerful . . . I don't know!
- Blows as from God's hatred; as if before them,
- the backlash of everything suffered
- were to dam up in the soul . . . I don't know!
- They are few; but they are . . . They open dark furrows
- in the fiercest face and in the strongest side.
- Maybe they could be the horses of barbarous Attilas;
- or the black heralds Death sends us.
- They are the deep abysses of the soul's Christs,
- of some revered faith Destiny blasphemes.
- Those gory blows are the cracklings of a bread
- that burns-up on us at the oven's door.
- And man . . . Poor . . . poor! He turns his eyes,
- as when a slap on the shoulder calls us;
- he turns his crazed eyes, and everything lived
- is dammed up, like a pond of guilt, in his gaze.
- There are blows in life, so powerful . . . I don't know!
Trilce, published in 1922, anticipated much of the avant-garde movement that would develop in the 1920s and 1930s. Vallejo's book takes language to a radical extreme, inventing words, stretching syntax, using automatic writing and other techniques now known as "surrealist" (though he did this before the Surrealist movement began). The book put Latin America at the center of the Avant-garde. Like James Joyce's Finnegans Wake,Trilce borders on inaccessibility.
España, Aparta de Mí Este Cáliz (1937)
In España, aparta de mí este cáliz (Spain, Take This Chalice from Me), Vallejo takes the Spanish Civil War (1936–39) as a living representation of a struggle between good and evil forces, where he advocates for the triumph of mankind symbolised in the salvation of the Second Spanish Republic (1931–39) that was being attacked by fascist allied forces led by General Franco. In 1994 Harold Bloom included España, Aparta de Mí Este Cáliz in his list of influential works of the Western Canon.
Poemas Humanos (1939)
Poemas Humanos(Human Poems), published by the poet's wife after his death, is a leftist work of political, socially oriented poetry. Although a few of these poems appeared in magazines during Vallejo's lifetime, almost all of them were published posthumously. The poet never specified a title for this grouping, but while reading his body of work his widow found that he had planned a book of "human poems", which is why his editors decided on this title. Of this the poet's last written work, it was said"... after a long silence, as if the presentiment of death might have urged him, he wrote in a few months the Poemas humanos."
Vallejo wrote five plays, none of which were staged or published during his lifetime.
Mampar is the subject of a critical letter from French actor and theatre director Louis Jouvet which says, in summary, "Interesting, but terminally flawed". It deals with the conflict between a man and his mother-in-law. The text itself is lost, assumed to have been destroyed by Vallejo.
Lock-Out (1930, written in French; a Spanish translation by Vallejo himself is lost) deals with a labour struggle in a foundry.
Entre las dos orillas corre el río (1930s) was the product of a long and difficult birth. Titles of earlier versions include Varona Polianova, Moscú contra Moscú, El juego del amor, del odio y de la muerte and several variations on this latter title.
Colacho hermanos o Presidentes de América (1934). Satire displaying Peruvian democracy as a bourgeois farce under pressure from international companies and diplomacy.
La piedra cansada (1937), a poetic drama set in the Inca period and influenced by Greek tragedy.
Vallejo published a chronicles book entitled Russia in 1931. Reflections at the foot of the Kremlin (Madrid, 1931) and prepared another similar book for the presses titled Russia before the second five-year plan (finished in 1932 but was later published in 1965).
Also, he organized two prose books about essay and reflection: Against Professional Secrecy (written, according to Georgette, between 1923 and 1929), and Art and Revolution (written between 1929 and 1931), which bring together diverse articles, some which were published in magazines and newspapers during the lifetime of the author. No Spanish editorial wanted to publish these books because of their Marxist and revolutionary character. They would later be published in 1973.
El tungsteno (1931). A social realist novel depicting the oppression of native Peruvian miners and their communities by a foreign-owned tungsten mine.
Towards the kingdom of the Sciris (1928) is a historic short story dealing with the Incan theme.
Fabla Salvaje (1924) Literally 'Wild Language', is a short novel which follows the insanity of a character who lives in the Andes.
The children's book, "Paco Yunque", was rejected in Spain in 1930 for being too violent for children. But after it was published in Peru in the 1960s, it became mandatory reading in the elementary schools in Peru.
Rusia en 1931, reflexiones al pie del Kremlin (Russia in 1931, reflections on foot of the Kremlin), first published in 1931, is a journalistic work describing Vallejo's impressions of the new socialist society that he saw being built in Soviet Russia.
Rusia ante el II Plan Quinquenal is a second work of Vallejo's chronicles of his travels in Soviet Russia, focusing on Joseph Stalin's second Five Year Plan. The book, originally written in 1931, was not published until 1965.
Vallejo in popular culture
- Guyanese poet Martin Carter dedicated two poems to Vallejo published in Poems of Affinity, released in 1980.
- The Pulitzer-prize winning American dramatist Sam Shepard wrote in "Cruising Paradise" (1997) that Cesar Vallejo is his favorite poet. Shepard's previous title, "Motel Chronicles", begins with an inscription from a Vallejo poem, "...never did far away charge so close."
- German-born American author Charles Bukowski wrote a poem about Vallejo in his posthumously published book What matters most is how well you walk through the fire.
- Giannina Braschi's Empire of Dreams, a Latin American poetry epic first published in Spain in 1988, pays homage to Cesar Vallejo's "Los Heraldos Negros" and "Trilce".
- American poet Joe Bolton adapted several sections of Trilce in his book Days of Summer Gone (Galileo Press, 1990).
- The Spanglish classic novel Yo-Yo Boing! (1998) by Giannina Braschi features a comic debate between artists on the ranking of Vallejo's genius versus other Spanish language poets Francisco de Quevedo, Góngora, Ruben Darío, Pablo Neruda, Juan Ramon Jimenez, Federico Garcia Lorca, Julia de Burgos, and Luis Palés Matos.
- The Swedish film Songs from the Second Floor (2000), directed by Roy Andersson, quotes Cesar Vallejo's work as a recurring motif.
- The Latin American postcolonial novel "United States of Banana" by Giannina Braschi features a cameo by Cesar Vallejo at a wedding banquet along with fellow poet Rubén Darío.
- Greek singer and songwriter Thanasis Papakonstantinou wrote a song about Vallejo, sang by Sokratis Malamas.
Selected works available in English
- The Complete Poetry of César Vallejo (Edited and Translated by Clayton Eshleman. With a Foreword by Mario Vargas Llosa, an Introduction by Efrain Kristal, and a Chronology by Stephen M. Hart.) University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24552-5 (shortlisted for the 2008 International Griffin Poetry Prize)
- The Complete Posthumous Poetry of César Vallejo (Translators: Clayton Eshleman and José Rubia Barcia), University of California Press ISBN 978-0-520-04099-1
- Malanga Chasing Vallejo: Selected Poems of César Vallejo with New Translations and Notes (Edited, Translated and with an Introduction by Gerard Malanga; also includes original and translated correspondence between the translator and Vallejo's widow Georgette de Vallejo) Three Rooms Press. ISBN 978-0-9895125-7-2 (Trade Paperback) and 978-1-9411101-0-2 (ebook).
- Trilce (Translators: Michael Smith, Valentino Gianuzzi). Shearsman Books. ISBN 978-0-907562-72-6
- The Complete Later Poems 1923–1938 (Translators: Michael Smith, Valentino Gianuzzi). Shearsman Books. ISBN 978-0-907562-73-3
- The Black Heralds (Translator: Rebecca Seiferle) Copper Canyon PressISBN 978-1-55659-199-0
- Trilce (Translator: Rebecca Seiferle) Sheep Meadow Press. ISBN 978-1-878818-12-6
- The Black Heralds (Translator: Barry Fogden) Allardyce, Barnett Publishers. ISBN 978-0-907954-23-1
- The Black Heralds (Translators: Richard Schaaf and Kathleen Ross) Latin American Literary Review Press. ISBN 978-0-935480-43-6
- Trilce (Translator: Dave Smith) Mishima Books. ISBN 978-0-670-73060-5
- Autopsy on Surrealism (Translator: Richard Schaaf) Curbstone Press. ISBN 978-0-915306-32-9
- Cesar Vallejo (Translators: Gordon Brotherstone and Edward Dorn) Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-042189-7
- Neruda and Vallejo: Selected Poems (Translators: Robert Bly and James Wright) Beacon Press. ISBN 978-0-8070-6489-4
- I'm going to speak of hope (Translator: Peter Boyle) Peruvian Consulate Publication.
- Cesar Vallejo: An Anthology of His Poetry (Introduction by James Higgins) The Commonwealth and International Library. ISBN 978-0-08-015761-0
- Selected Poems of Cesar Vallejo (Translator: H. R. Hays) Sachem Press. ISBN 978-0-937584-01-9
- Poemas Humanos, Human Poems, by César Vallejo, a bilingual edition translated by Clayton Eshleman. Copyright 1968. Grove Press, 1969, xxv + 326 pp. ISBN 978-84-376-0731-3.
- The Mayakovsky Case (Translator: Richard Schaaf) Curbstone Press. ISBN 978-0-915306-31-2
- Tungsten (Translator: Robert Mezey) Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-0226-2
- Songs of Home (Translators: Kathleen Ross and Richard Schaaf) Ziesing Brothers Book Emporium. ISBN 978-0-917488-05-4
- Spain Take This Cup from Me (Translator: Mary Sarko ) Azul. ISBN 978-1-885214-03-4
- Spain, Let This Cup Pass from Me (Translator: Alvaro Cardona-Hine) Azul. ISBN 978-1-885214-42-3
- Trilce (Selections from the 1922 Edition), Vols. 38/39 and 40/41 (Translator: Prospero Saiz) Abraxas Press. ISBN 978-0-932868-07-7
- Trilce (Homophonic translator: James Wagner). Calamari Press. ISBN 978-0-9770723-2-3
- ^|González Echevarría, Roberto , "Revolutionary Devotion", The Nation. 3 May, 2007. Retrieved on 17 August, 2017.
- ^González Viaña, Eduardo (2008). Vallejo en los infiernos. Barcelona: Alfaqueque. ISBN 9788493627423.
- ^Judiciary of Peru (ed.). "(spanish) Reivindicación de Vallejo"(PDF). Retrieved November 17, 2012.
- ^LATIN POETS UK (ed.). "Cesar Vallejo Tribute 2012". Retrieved November 6, 2012.
- ^Kinsbruner, Jay (2008). Encyclopedia of Latin American history and culture. Detroit: Gale. pp. 274–275.
- ^"Vallejo, Cesar".
- ^"Cesar Vallejo". https://www.britannica.com/biography/Cesar-Vallejo. Retrieved 2017-03-01.
- ^"The Black Heralds"(PDF). Retrieved December 21, 2012.
- ^Julio Caillet Bois, Antología del la poesía hispanoamericano, Madrid: Aguilar S.A. Ediciones, 1965, p1246
- ^"César Vallejo". Martin Carter (1927-1997). Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- ^Empire of Dreams, introduction by Alicia Ostriker. Yale University Press. 1994. ISBN 0-300-05795-4.
- ^Yo-Yo Boing!, Introduction by Doris Sommer, Harvard University. Latin American Literary Review Press. 1998. ISBN 0-935480-97-8.
- ^United States of Banana. Amazon Crossing. November 2011. ISBN 9781611090673.
- Poetry and Politics: The Spanish Civil War Poetry of César Vallejo, George Lambie, 1992, Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, LXIX
- Vallejo's Interpretation of Spanish Culture and History in the Himno a los voluntarios de la República, George Lambie, 1999, Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, LXXVI
- Intellectuals, Ideology and Revolution: The Political Ideas of César Vallejo, George Lambie, 2000, Hispanic Research Journal, Vol.1, No.2
- Vallejo and the End of History, George Lambie, 2002, Romance Quarterly, Vol.49, No.2
- Vallejo and Democracy, George Lambie, 2004, Bulletin of Hispanic Studies (Higginschrift)
- Poetry in Pieces: César Vallejo and Lyric Modernity, Michelle Clayton, 2011
- César Vallejo: A Critical Bibliography of Research, Stephen M Hart, 2002
- César Vallejo: The Dialectics of Poetry and Silence, Jean Franco, 1976
- The Catastrophe of Modernity: Tragedy and the Nation in Latin American Literature, Patrick Dove, 2004
- The Poem on the Edge of the Word: the Limits of Language and the Uses of Silence, D.C. Niebylski, 1993
- Vallejo, Xavier Abril, 1958
- The Poetry and Poetics of Cesar Vallejo: the Fourth Angle of the Circle, Adam Sharman, 1997
- Wounded Fiction: Modern Poetry and Deconstruction, Joseph Adamson, 1988
- Homage to Vallejo, Christopher Buckley, 2006
- Trilce I: a Second Look, George Gordon Wing, 1972
- Neruda and Vallejo in Contemporary United States Poetry, Mark Jonathan Cramer, 1976
- “Vallejo on Language and Politics,” Letras hispanas: Revista de literatura y cultura, Rolando Pérez, 2008.
- http://letrashispanas.unlv.edu/vol5iss2/perez.htm; https://web.archive.org/web/20090319121638/http://letrashispanas.unlv.edu/vol5iss2/perez.pdf
- “César Vallejo’s Ars Poética of Nonsense: A Deleuzean Reading of Trilce.” Dissidences: Hispanic Journal of Theory and Criticism, Rolando Pérez, 2008. www.dissidences/4PerezVallejo.html
- El Pensamiento Politico de César Vallejo y la Guerra Civil Española / George Lambie., 1993. Lima: Editorial Milla Batres
- César Vallejo, el poeta y el hombre / Ricardo Silva-Santisteban. Lima, 2010
- Recordando a Vallejo: La Bohemia de Trujillo / Luis Alva Castro, Luis. www.Tribuna-us.com
- Ensayos vallejianos / William Rowe., 2006
- César Vallejo al pie del orbe / Iván Rodríguez Chávez., 2006
- Alcance filosófico en Cesar Vallejo y Antonio Machado / Antonio Belaunde Moreyra., 2005
- César Vallejo : estudios de poética / Jesús Humberto Florencia., 2005
- Poéticas y utopías en la poesía de César Vallejo / Pedro José Granados., 2004
- César Vallejo : muerte y resurrección / Max Silva Tuesta., 2003
- César Vallejo, arquitecto de la palabra, caminante de la gloria / Idelfonso Niño Albán., 2003
- Algunos críticos de Vallejo y otros ensayos vallejianos / César Augusto Angeles Caballero., 2002
- César Vallejo en la crítica internacional / Wilfredo Kapsoli Escudero., 2001
- César Vallejo y el surrealismo / Juan Larrea., 2001
- César Vallejo y la muerte de Dios / Rafael Gutiérrez Girardot., 2000
- César Vallejo / Víctor de Lama., 2000
- Recopilación de textos sobre César Vallejo / Raúl Hernández Novás., 2000
- Mi encuentro con Vallejo; Prólogo de Luis Alva Castro / Antenor Orrego. Bogotá: Tercer Mundo Editores, 1989. ISBN 978-95-8601-224-9
- Antenor Orrego y sus dos prólogos a Trilce / Manuel Ibáñez Rosazza. Trilce Editores: Trujillo, 1995
- César Vallejo, Sus mejores obras. Ediciones Perú: Lima, 1962
- César Vallejo, vida y obra / Luis Monguió. Editora Perú Nuevo: Lima, 1952
- César Vallejo (1892–1938); Vida y obra, Revista Hispánica Moderna, New York, 1950.