One Shot Case Study Marketing Information

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• One-group pre-test/post-test design • Static-group comparison True Experimental Designs • Pre-test/post-test control group design • Post-test-only control group design Statistical Experimental Designs • Completely randomized design

Preexperimental Design • Subjects not randomly assigned. • Does not establish causal relationships • Are exploratory in nature • Has minimal control over extraneous factors

One-Shot Case Study Preexperimental Design X O • Most basic experimental design. • Group of participants are exposed to a treatment. • No control group. • No pre-test. • Researchers have no opportunity to compare results.

One-Group Pretest/Posttest Design Preexperimental Design O1 X O2 • Observation taken before treatment. • Observation taken after treatment. • Effect of treatment measured by comparing two observations.

Static Group Comparison Preexperimental Design X O1 O2 • Two groups: experimental and control. • Experimental group receives treatment. • Effect of treatment measured by comparing experimental group and control group. • Problems with design include:

Designs • Subjects randomly assigned. • Some types of true experimental designs:

Pre-Experimental Designs

Pre-experiments are the simplest form of research design. In a pre-experiment either a single group or multiple groups are observed subsequent to some agent or treatment presumed to cause change.

Types of Pre-Experimental Design

  • One-shot case study design
  • One-group pretest-posttest design
  • Static-group comparison

One-shot case study design

A single group is studied at a single point in time after some treatment that is presumed to have caused change. The carefully studied single instance is compared to general expectations of what the case would have looked like had the treatment not occurred and to other events casually observed. No control or comparison group is employed.

One-group pretest-posttest design

A single case is observed at two time points, one before the treatment and one after the treatment. Changes in the outcome of interest are presumed to be the result of the intervention or treatment. No control or comparison group is employed.

Static-group comparison

A group that has experienced some treatment is compared with one that has not. Observed differences between the two groups are assumed to be a result of the treatment.

Validity of Results

An important drawback of pre-experimental designs is that they are subject to numerous threats to their validity. Consequently, it is often difficult or impossible to dismiss rival hypotheses or explanations. Therefore, researchers must exercise extreme caution in interpreting and generalizing the results from pre-experimental studies.

One reason that it is often difficult to assess the validity of studies that employ a pre-experimental design is that they often do not include any control or comparison group. Without something to compare it to, it is difficult to assess the significance of an observed change in the case. The change could be the result of historical changes unrelated to the treatment, the maturation of the subject, or an artifact of the testing.

Even when pre-experimental designs identify a comparison group, it is still difficult to dismiss rival hypotheses for the observed change. This is because there is no formal way to determine whether the two groups would have been the same if it had not been for the treatment. If the treatment group and the comparison group differ after the treatment, this might be a reflection of differences in the initial recruitment to the groups or differential mortality in the experiment.

Advantages and Disadvantages


As exploratory approaches, pre-experiments can be a cost-effective way to discern whether a potential explanation is worthy of further investigation.


Pre-experiments offer few advantages since it is often difficult or impossible to rule out alternative explanations. The nearly insurmountable threats to their validity are clearly the most important disadvantage of pre-experimental research designs.

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