Roland Pfefferkorn Bibliography De Mariama Ba

"Burned at the stake" redirects here. For the 1981 horror film, see Burned at the Stake.

"Burned alive" redirects here. For the book about honor killing, see Burned Alive.

Deliberately causing death through the effects of combustion, or effects of exposure to extreme heat, has a long history as a form of capital punishment. Many societies have employed it as an execution method for activities considered criminal such as treason, rebellious actions by slaves, heresy, witchcraft and sexual transgressions, such as incest or homosexuality. The best known type of executions of death by burning is when the condemned is bound to a large wooden stake (this is usually called burning at the stake, or in some cases, auto-da-fé), but other forms of death resulting from exposure to extreme heat are known, for example, pouring substances such as molten metal onto a person (or down their throat or into their ears), as well as enclosing persons within, or attaching them to, metal contraptions subsequently heated. Immersion in a heated liquid as a form of execution is considered distinct from death by burning, and classified as death by boiling.

For burnings at the stake, if the fire was large (for instance, when a number of prisoners were executed at the same time), death often came from carbon monoxide poisoning before flames actually caused lethal harm to the body. If the fire was small, however, the condemned would burn for some time until death from hypovolemia (the loss of blood and/or fluids, since extensive burns often require large amounts of intravenous fluid, because the subsequent inflammatory response causes significant capillary fluid leakage and oedema), heatstroke and/or simply the thermal decomposition of vital body parts.[1]

Historical usage[edit]

Antiquity[edit]

Ancient Near East[edit]

Old Babylonia[edit]

The 18th century BC law code promulgated by Babylonian king Hammurabi specifies several crimes in which death by burning was thought appropriate. Looters of houses on fire could be cast into the flames, and priestesses who abandoned cloisters and began frequenting inns and taverns could also be punished by being burnt alive. Furthermore, a man who began committing incest with his mother after the death of his father could be ordered by courts to be burned alive.[2]

Ancient Egypt[edit]

In Ancient Egypt, several incidents of burning alive perceived rebels are attested, for example, Senusret I (r. 1971–1926 BC) is said to have rounded up the rebels in campaign, and burnt them as human torches. Under the civil war flaring under Takelot II more than a thousand years later, the Crown Prince Osorkon showed no mercy, and burned several rebels alive,[3] on the statute books, at least, women committing adultery might be burned to death. Jon Manchip White, however, did not think capital judicial punishments were often carried out, pointing to the fact that the pharaoh had to personally ratify each verdict.[4] Furthermore, the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus (fl. 1st century BC) asserts that the Egyptians had a particularly terrible punishment for children who murdered their parents: With sharpened reeds, bits of flesh the size of a finger were cut from the criminal's body. Then he was placed on a bed of thorns and burnt alive.[5]

Assyria[edit]

In the Middle Assyrian period, paragraph 40 in a preserved law text concerns the obligatory unveiled face for the professional prostitute, and the concomitant punishment if she violated that by veiling herself (the way wives were to dress in public):

A prostitute shall not be veiled. Whoever sees a veiled prostitute shall seize her ... and bring her to the palace entrance. ... they shall pour hot pitch over her head.[6]

For the Neo-Assyrians, mass executions seem to have been not only designed to instill terror and to enforce obedience, but also as proof of their might, for example, Neo-Assyrian King Ashurnasirpal II (r. 883–859 BC) was evidently proud enough of his bloody work that he committed it to monument and eternal memory as follows:[7]

I cut off their hands, I burned them with fire, a pile of the living men and of heads over against the city gate I set up, men I impaled on stakes, the city I destroyed and devastated, I turned it into mounds and ruin heaps, the young men and the maidens in the fire I burned.

Hebraic tradition[edit]

In Genesis 38, Judah orders Tamar—the widow of his son, living in her father's household—to be burned when she is believed to have become pregnant by an extramarital sexual relation. Tamar saves herself by proving that Judah is himself the father of her child; in the Book of Jubilees, the same story is basically told, with some intriguing differences, according to Caryn A. Reeder; in Genesis, Judah is exercising his patriarchal power at a distance, whereas he and the relatives seem more actively involved in Tamar's impending execution.[8]

In Hebraic law, death by burning was prescribed for ten forms of sexual crimes: The imputed crime of Tamar, namely that a married daughter of a priest commits adultery, and nine versions of relationships considered as incestuous, such as having sex with one's own daughter, or granddaughter, but also, for example, to have sex with one's mother-in-law or with one's wife's daughter.[9]

In the Mishnah, the following manner of burning the criminal is described:

The obligatory procedure for execution by burning: They immersed him in dung up to his knees, rolled a rough cloth into a soft one and wound it about his neck. One pulled it one way, one the other until he opened his mouth. Thereupon one ignites the (lead) wick and throws it in his mouth, and it descends to his bowels and sears his bowels.

That is, the person dies from being fed molten lead,[10] the Mishnah is, however, a fairly late collections of laws, from about the 3rd century AD, and scholars believe it replaced the actual punishment of burning in the old biblical texts.[11]

Ancient Rome[edit]

In the 6th century AD collection of the sayings and rulings of the pre-eminent jurists from earlier ages, the Digest, a number of crimes are regarded as punishable by death by burning, the 3rd century jurist Ulpian, for example, says that enemies of the state, and deserters to the enemy are to be burned alive. His rough contemporary, the juristical writer Callistratus mentions that arsonists are typically burnt, as well as slaves who have conspired against the well-being of their masters (this last also, on occasion, being meted out to free persons of "low rank"),[12] the punishment of burning alive arsonists (and traitors) seems to have been particularly ancient; it was included in the Twelve Tables, a mid-5th BC law code, that is, about 700 years prior to the times of Ulpian and Callistratus.[13] According to ancient reports, Roman authorities executed many of the early Christian martyrs by burning. An example of this is the earliest chronicle of a martyrdom, that of Polycarp.[14] Sometimes this was by means of the tunica molesta,[15] a flammable tunic:[16]

... the Christian, stripped naked, was forced to put on a garment called the tunica molesta, made of papyrus, smeared on both sides with wax, and was then fastened to a high pole, from the top of which they continued to pour down burning pitch and lard, a spike fastened under the chin preventing the excruciated victim from turning the head to either side, so as to escape the liquid fire, until the whole body, and every part of it, was literally clad and cased in flame.

In AD 326, Constantine the Great promulgated a law that increased the penalties for parentally non-sanctioned "abduction" of their girls, and concomitant sexual intercourse/rape, the man would be burnt alive without the possibility of appeal, and the girl would receive the same treatment if she had participated willingly. Nurses who had corrupted their female wards and led them to sexual encounters would have molten lead poured down their throats;[17] in the same year, Constantine also passed a law that said if a woman married her own slave, both would be subjected to capital punishment, the slave by burning.[18] In AD 390, Emperor Theodosius issued an edict against male prostitutes and brothels offering such services; those found guilty should be burned alive.[19]

Ritual child sacrifice in Carthage[edit]

Further information: Religion in Carthage

Beginning in the early 3rd century BC, Greek and Roman writers have commented on the purported institutionalized child sacrifice the North African Carthaginians are said to have performed in honour of the gods Baal Hammon and Tanit. The earliest writer, Cleitarchus is among the most explicit, he says live infants were placed in the arms of a bronze statue, the statue's hands over a brazier, so that the infant slowly rolled into the fire. As it did so, the limbs of the infant contracted and the face was distorted into a sort of laughing grimace, hence called "the act of laughing". Other, later authors such as Diodorus Siculus and Plutarch says the throats of the infants were generally cut, before they were placed in the statue's embrace[20] In the vicinity of ancient Carthage, large scale grave yards containing the incinerated remains of infants, typically up to the age of 3, have been found; such graves are called "tophets". However, some scholars have argued that these findings are not evidence of systematic child sacrifice, and that estimated figures of ancient natural infant mortality (with cremation afterwards and reverent separate burial) might be the real historical basis behind the hostile reporting from non-Carthaginians. A late charge of the imputed sacrifice is found by the North African bishop Tertullian, who says that child sacrifices were still carried out, in secret, in the countryside at his time, 3rd century AD.[21]

Celtic traditions[edit]

According to Julius Caesar, the ancient Celts practiced the burning alive of humans in a number of settings, for example, in Book 6, chapter 16, he writes of the Druidic sacrifice of criminals within huge wicker frames shaped as men:

Others have figures of vast size, the limbs of which formed of osiers they fill with living men, which being set on fire, the men perish enveloped in the flames, they consider that the oblation of such as have been taken in theft, or in robbery, or any other offence, is more acceptable to the immortal gods; but when a supply of that class is wanting, they have recourse to the oblation of even the innocent.

Slightly later, in Book 6, chapter 19, Caesar also says the Celts perform, on the occasion of death of great men, the funeral sacrifice on the pyre of living slaves and dependants ascertained to have been "beloved by them". Earlier on, in Book 1, chapter 4, he relates of the conspiracy of the nobleman Orgetorix, charged by the Celts for having planned a coup d'état, for which the customary penalty would be burning to death, it is said Orgetorix committed suicide to avoid that fate.[22]

Human sacrifice around the Eastern Baltic[edit]

Throughout the 12th–14th centuries, a number of non-Christian peoples living around the Eastern Baltic Sea, such as Old Prussians and Lithuanians were charged by Christian writers with performing human sacrifice. For example, Pope Gregory IX issued a papal bull denouncing an alleged practice among the Prussians, that girls were dressed in fresh flowers and wreaths and were then burned alive as offerings to evil spirits.[23]

Christian states[edit]

Eastern Roman Empire[edit]

Under 6th-century emperor Justinian I, the death penalty had been decreed for impenitent Manicheans, but a specific punishment was not made explicit. By the 7th century, however, those found guilty of "dualist heresy" could risk being burned at the stake,[24] those found guilty of performing magical rites, and corrupting sacred objects in the process, might face death by burning, as evidenced in a 7th-century case.[25] In the 10th century AD, the Byzantines instituted death by burning for parricides, i.e. those who had killed their own relatives, replacing the older punishment of poena cullei, the stuffing of the convict in a leather sack along with a rooster, a viper, a dog and a monkey, and then throwing the sack into the sea.[26]

Medieval Inquisition and the burning of heretics[edit]

Civil authorities burned persons judged to be heretics under the medievalInquisition. Burning heretics had become customary practice in the latter half of the twelfth century in continental Europe, and death by burning became statutory punishment from the early 13th century. Death by burning for heretics was made positive law by Pedro II of Aragon in 1197; in 1224 Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, made burning a legal alternative, and in 1238, it became the principal punishment in the Empire. In Sicily, the punishment was made law in 1231, whereas in France, Louis IX made it binding law in 1270.[27]

As England in the 15th century grew weary of the teachings of John Wycliffe and the Lollards, kings, priests, and parliaments reacted with fire; in 1401, Parliament passed the De heretico comburendo act, which can be loosely translated as "Regarding the burning of heretics." Lollard persecution would continue for over a hundred years in England. The Fire and Faggot Parliament met in May 1414 at Grey Friars Priory in Leicester to lay out the notorious Suppression of Heresy Act 1414, enabling the burning of heretics by making the crime enforceable by the Justices of the peace. John Oldcastle, a prominent Lollard leader, was not saved from the gallows by his old friend King Henry V. Oldcastle was hanged and his gallows burned in 1417. Jan Hus was burned at the stake after being accused at the Roman Catholic Council of Constance (1414–18) of heresy. The ecumenical council also decreed that the remains of John Wycliffe, dead for 30 years, should be exhumed and burned. (This posthumous execution was carried out in 1428.)

Burnings of Jews[edit]

Several incidents are recorded of massacres on Jews from the 12th through 16th centuries in which they were burned alive, often on account of the blood libel; in 1171 in Blois, for example, 51 Jews were burned alive (the entire adult community). In 1191, King Philip Augustus ordered around 100 Jews burnt alive,[28] that Jews purportedly performed host desecration also led to mass burnings; In 1243 in Beelitz, the entire Jewish community was burnt alive, and in 1510 in Berlin, some 26 Jews were burnt alive for the same crime.[29] During the "Black Death" in the mid-14th century a spate of large-scale massacres occurred. One libel was that the Jews had poisoned the wells; in 1349, as panic grew along with the increasing death toll from the plague, general massacres, but also specifically mass burnings, began to occur. Six hundred (600) Jews were burnt alive in Basel alone. A large mass burning occurred in Strasbourg, where several hundred Jews were burnt alive in what became known as the Strasbourg massacre.[30]

A Jewish male, Johannes Pfefferkorn, met a particularly gruesome death in 1514 in Halle, he had been charged with a number of crimes, such as having impersonated a priest for twenty years, performed host desecration, stolen Christian children to be tortured and killed by other Jews, poisoning 13 people and poisoning wells. He was lashed to a pillar in such a way that he could run about it. Then, a ring of glowing coal was made around him, a fiery ring that was gradually pushed ever closer to him, until he was roasted to death.[31]

The Lepers' Plot of 1321[edit]

Not only Jews could be victims of mass hysteria on charges like that of poisoning wells, this particular charge, well-poisoning, was the basis for a large scale hunt of lepers in 1321 France. In the spring of 1321, in Périgueux, people became convinced that the local lepers had poisoned the wells, causing ill-health among the normal populace, the lepers were rounded up and burned alive. The action against the lepers didn't stay local, though, but had repercussions throughout France, not least because King Philip V issued an order to arrest all lepers, those found guilty to be burnt alive. Jews became tangentially included as well; at Chinon alone, 160 Jews were burnt alive.[32] All in all, around 5000 lepers and Jews are recorded in one tradition to have been killed during the Lepers' Plot hysteria.[33]

The charge of the lepers' plot was not wholly confined to France; existent records from England show that on Jersey the same year, at least one family of lepers were burnt alive for having poisoned others.[34]

Spanish Inquisition against Moriscos and Marranos[edit]

The Spanish Inquisition was established in 1478, with the aim of preserving Catholic orthodoxy; some of its principal targets were formally converted Jews, called "Marranos" thought relapsing into Judaism, or the Moriscos, formally converted Muslims thought to have relapsed into Islam. The public executions of the Spanish Inquisition were called autos-da-fé; convicts were "released" (handed over) to secular authorities in order to be burnt.

Estimates of how many were executed on behest of the Spanish Inquisition have been offered from early on; historian Hernando del Pulgar (1436–c. 1492) estimated that 2000 people were burned at the stake between 1478 and 1490.[35] Estimates range from 30,000 to 50,000 burnt at the stake (alive or not) at the behest of the Spanish Inquisition during its 300 years of activity have previously been given and are still to be found in popular books.[36]

In February 1481, in what is said to be the first auto-da-fé, six Marranos were burnt alive in Seville; in November 1481, 298 Marranos were burnt publicly at the same place, their property confiscated by the Church.[37] Not all Maranos executed by being burnt at the stake seem to have been burnt alive. If the Jew "confessed his heresy", the Church would show mercy, and he would be strangled prior to the burning. Autos-da-fé against Maranos extended beyond the Spanish heartland; in Sicily, in 1511–15, 79 were burnt at the stake, while from 1511 to 1560, 441 Maranos were condemned to be burned alive.[38] In Spanish American colonies, autos-da-fé were held as well, for example, in 1664, a man and his wife were burned alive in Río de la Plata, and in 1699, a Jew was burnt alive in Mexico City.[39]

In 1535, five Moriscos were burned at the stake on Majorca, the images of a further four were also burnt in effigy, since the actual individuals had managed to flee, during the 1540s, some 232 Moriscos were paraded in autos-da-fé in Zaragoza; five of those were burnt at the stake.[40] The claim that out of 917 Moriscos appearing in autos of the Inquisition in Granada between 1550–95, just 20 were executed [41] seems at odds with a report from Seville of 17th June 1593 that over 70 of the richest men of Granada were burnt,[42] as late as 1728 as many as 45 Moriscos were recorded burned for heresy.[43] In the May 1691 "bonfire of the Jews", Rafael Valls, Rafael Benito Terongi and Catalina Terongi were burned alive.[44][45]

Portuguese Inquisition at Goa[edit]

In 1560, the Portuguese Inquisition opened offices in the Indian colony Goa, known as Goa Inquisition, its aim was to protect Catholic orthodoxy among new converts to Christianity, and retain hold on the old, particularly against "Judaizing" deviancy. From the 17th century, Europeans were shocked at the tales of how brutal and extensive the activities of the Inquisition were.[citation needed] What modern scholars have established, is that some 4046 individuals in the time 1560–1773 received some sort of punishment from the Portuguese Inquisition, whereof 121 persons were condemned to be burned alive, of those 57 who actually suffered that fate, while the rest escaped it, and were burnt in effigy, instead,[46] for the Portuguese Inquisition in total, not just at Goa, modern estimates of persons actually executed on its behest is about 1200, whether burnt alive or not.[47]

Legislation concerning "crimes against nature"[edit]

From the 12th to the 18th centuries, various European authorities legislated (and held judicial proceedings) against sexual crimes such as sodomy or bestiality; often, the prescribed punishment was that of death by burning. Many scholars think that the first time death by burning appeared within explicit codes of law for the crime of sodomy was at the ecclesiastical 1120 Council of Nablus in the crusaderKingdom of Jerusalem. Here, if public repentance were done, the death penalty might be avoided;[48] in Spain, the earliest records for executions for the crime of sodomy are from the 13th–14th centuries, and it is noted there that the preferred mode of execution was death by burning. The Partidas of king Alfonso "El Sabio" condemned sodomites to be castrated and hung upside down to die from the bleeding, following the old testament phrase "their blood shall be upon them",[49] at Geneva, the first recorded burning of sodomites occurred in 1555, and up to 1678, some two dozen met the same fate. In Venice, the first burning took place in 1492, and a monk was burnt as late as 1771,[50] the last case in France where two men were condemned by court to be burned alive for engaging in consensual homosexual sex was in 1750 (although, it seems, they were actually strangled prior to being burned). The last case in France where a man was condemned to be burned for a murderous rape of a boy occurred in 1784.[51]

Crackdowns and the public burning of a couple of homosexuals might lead to local panic, and persons thus inclined fleeing from the place, the traveller William Lithgow witnessed such a dynamic when he visited Malta in 1616 :

The fifth day of my staying here, I saw a Spanish soldier and a Maltezen boy burnt in ashes, for the public profession of sodomy; and long before night, there were above an hundred bardassoes, whorish boys, that fled away to Sicily in a galliot, for fear of fire; but never one bugeron stirred, being few or none there free of it.[52]

The actual punishment meted out to, for example, pederasts could differ according to status. While both in 1532 and 1409 Augsburg two men were burned alive for their offenses, a rather different procedure was meted out to four clerics in the 1409 case guilty of the same offence: Instead of being burnt alive, they were locked into a wooden casket that was hung up in the Perlachturm and they starved to death in that manner.[53]

The 1532 penal code of Charles V[edit]

In 1532, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V promulgated his penal code Constitutio Criminalis Carolina. A number of crimes were punishable with death by burning, such as coin forgery, arson, and sexual acts "contrary to nature".[54] Also, those guilty of aggravated theft of sacred objects from a church could be condemned to be burnt alive.[55] Only those found guilty of malevolent witchcraft[56] could be punished by death by fire.[57]

The last burnings from 1804 and 1813[edit]

According to the jurist Eduard Osenbrüggen (de), the last case he knew of where a person had been judicially burned alive on account of arson in Germany happened in 1804, in Hötzelsroda, close by Eisenach.[58] The manner in which Johannes Thomas[59] was executed on 13 July that year is described as follows: Some feet above the actual pyre, attached to a stake, a wooden chamber had been constructed, into which the delinquent was placed. Pipes or chimneys, filled with sulphuric material led up to the chamber, and that was first lit, so that Thomas died from inhaling the sulphuric smoke, rather than being strictly burnt alive, before his body was consumed by the general fire, some 20,000 people had gathered to watch Thomas' execution.[60]

Although Thomas is regarded as the last to have been actually executed by means of fire (in this case, through suffocation), the couple Johann Christoph Peter Horst and his lover Friederike Louise Christiane Delitz, who had made a career of robberies in the confusion made by their acts of arson, were condemned to be burnt alive in Berlin 28 May 1813. They were, however, according to Gustav Radbruch, secretly strangled just prior to being burnt, namely when their arms and legs were tied fast to the stake.[61]

Although these two cases are the last where execution by burning might be said to have been carried out in some degree, Eduard Osenbrüggen mentions that verdicts to be burned alive were given in several cases in different German states afterwards, such as in cases from 1814, 1821, 1823, 1829 and finally in a case from 1835.[62]

Witch-hunts[edit]

Burning was used by Christians during the witch-hunts of Europe, the penal code known as the Constitutio Criminalis Carolina (1532) decreed that sorcery throughout the Holy Roman Empire should be treated as a criminal offence, and if it purported to inflict injury upon any person the witch was to be burnt at the stake. In 1572, Augustus, Elector of Saxony imposed the penalty of burning for witchcraft of every kind, including simple fortunetelling,[63] from the latter half of the 18th century, the number of "nine million witches burned in Europe" has been bandied about in popular accounts and media, but has never had a following among specialist researchers.[64] Today, based on meticulous study of trial records, ecclesiastical and inquisitorial registers and so on, as well as on the utilization of modern statistical methods, the specialist research community on witchcraft has reached an agreement for roughly 40,000–50,000 people executed for witchcraft in Europe in total,[65] and by no means all of them executed by being burned alive. Furthermore, it is solidly established that the peak period of witch-hunts was the century 1550–1650, with a slow increase preceding it, from the 15th century onward, as well as a sharp drop following it, with "witch-hunts" having basically fizzled out by the first half of the 18th century.[66]

Famous cases[edit]

Notable individuals executed by burning include Jacques de Molay (1314),[67]Jan Hus (1415),[68]Joan of Arc (1431),[69]Girolamo Savonarola (1498),[70]Patrick Hamilton (1528),[71]John Frith (1533),[72]William Tyndale (1536), Michael Servetus (1553),[73]Giordano Bruno (1600),[74]Urbain Grandier (1634),[75] and Avvakum (1682).[76] Anglican martyrs John Rogers,[77]Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley were burned at the stake in 1555.[78]Thomas Cranmer followed the next year (1556).[79]

Denmark[edit]

In Denmark, after the 1536 reformation, Christian IV of Denmark (r. 1588–1648) encouraged the practice of burning witches, in particular by the law against witchcraft in 1617. In Jutland, the mainland part of Denmark, more than half the recorded cases of witchcraft in the 16th and 17th centuries occurred after 1617. Rough estimates says about a thousand persons were executed due to convictions for witchcraft in the 1500–1600s, but it is not wholly clear if all of the transgressors were burned to death.[80]

England[edit]

Mary I ordered hundreds of religious dissenters (Protestants) burnt at the stake during her reign (1553–58) in what would be known as the "Marian Persecutions".[81] Many of the heretics killed by Mary are listed in Actes and Monuments, written by Foxe in 1563 and 1570. Edward Wightman, a Baptist from Burton on Trent, was the last person burned at the stake for heresy in England in Lichfield, Staffordshire on 11 April 1612.[82] Although cases can be found of burning heretics in the 16th and 17th centuries England, that penalty for heretics was historically relatively new, for example, it did not exist in 14th century England, and when the bishops in England petitioned king Richard II to institute death by burning for heretics in 1397, the king flatly refused, and no one was burnt for heresy during his reign.[83] Just one year after the death of Richard II, however, in 1401, William Sawtrey was burnt alive for heresy.[84] Death by burning for heresy was formally abolished by King Charles II in 1676.[85]

The traditional punishment for women found guilty of treason was to be burned at the stake, where they did not need to be publicly displayed naked, whereas men were hanged, drawn and quartered, the jurist William Blackstone argued as follows for the differential punishment of females vs. males:

For as the decency due to sex forbids the exposing and public mangling of their bodies, their sentence (which is to the full as terrible to sensation as the other) is to be drawn to the gallows and there be burned alive[86]

However, as described in Camille Naish's "Death Comes to the Maiden", in practice, the woman's shift would burn away at the beginning, and she would be left naked anyway. There were two types of treason, high treason for crimes against the Sovereign, and petty treason for the murder of one's lawful superior, including that of a husband by his wife. Commenting on the 18th century execution practice, Frank McLynn says that most convicts condemned to burning were not burnt alive, and that the executioners made sure the women were dead before consigning them to the flames.[87]

The last to have been condemned to death for "petty treason" was Mary Bailey, whose body was burned in 1784, the last woman to be convicted for "high treason", and have her body burnt, in this case for the crime of coin forgery, was Catherine Murphy in 1789.[88] The last case where a woman was actually burnt alive in England is that of Catherine Hayes in 1726, for the murder of her husband; in this case, one account says this happened because the executioner accidentally set fire to the pyre before he had hanged Hayes properly.[89] The historian Rictor Norton has assembled a number of contemporary newspaper reports on the actual death of Mrs. Hayes, internally somewhat divergent, the following excerpt is one example:

The fuel being placed round her, and lighted with a torch, she begg’d for the sake of Jesus, to be strangled first: whereupon the Executioner drew tight the halter, but the flame coming to his hand in the space of a second, he let it go, when she gave three dreadful shrieks; but the flames taking her on all sides, she was heard no more; and the Executioner throwing a piece of timber into the Fire, it broke her skull, when her brains came plentifully out; and in about an hour more she was entirely reduced to ashes.[90]

Scotland[edit]

James VI of Scotland (later James I of England) shared the Danish king's interest in witch trials. This special interest of the king resulted in the North Berwick witch trials, which led more than seventy people to be accused of witchcraft in Scotland due to inclement weather. James sailed in 1590 to Denmark to meet his betrothed, Anne of Denmark, who, ironically, is believed by some to have secretly converted to Roman Catholicism herself from Lutheranism around 1598, although historians are divided on whether she ever was received into the Roman Catholic faith.[91]

The last to be executed as a witch in Scotland was Janet Horne in 1727, condemned to death for using her own daughter as a flying horse in order to travel. Janet Horne was burnt alive in a tar barrel.[92]

Ireland[edit]

Petronilla de Meath (c. 1300–1324) was the maidservant of Dame Alice Kyteler, a 14th-century Hiberno-Norman noblewoman. After the death of Kyteler's fourth husband, the widow was accused of practicing witchcraft and Petronilla of being her accomplice. Petronilla was tortured and forced to proclaim that she and Kyteler were guilty of witchcraft. Petronilla was then flogged and eventually burnt at the stake on 3 November 1324, in Kilkenny, Ireland.[93][94] Hers was the first known case in the history of the British Isles of death by fire for the crime of heresy. Kyteler was charged by the Bishop of Ossory, Richard de Ledrede, with a wide slate of crimes, from sorcery and demonism to the murders of several husbands. She was accused of having illegally acquired her wealth through witchcraft, which accusations came principally from her stepchildren, the children of her late husbands by their previous marriages, the trial predated any formal witchcraft statute in Ireland, thus relying on ecclesiastical law (which treated witchcraft as heresy) rather than English common law (which treated it as a felony). Under torture, Petronilla claimed she and her mistress applied a magical ointment to a wooden beam, which enabled both women to fly, she was then forced to proclaim publicly that Lady Alice and her followers were guilty of witchcraft.[93] Some were convicted and whipped, but others, Petronilla included, were burnt at the stake, with the help of relatives, Alice Kyteler fled, taking with her Petronilla's daughter, Basilia.[95]

In 1895, Bridget Cleary (née Boland), a County Tipperary woman, was burnt by her husband and others, the stated motive for the crime being the belief that the real Bridget had been abducted by fairies with a changeling left in her place. Her husband claimed to have slain only the changeling, the gruesome nature of the case prompted extensive press coverage. The trial was closely followed by newspapers in both Ireland and Britain,[96] as one reviewer commented, nobody, with the possible exception of the presiding judge, thought it was an ordinary murder case.[96]

Slavery and colonialism in the Americas[edit]

North America[edit]

Indigenous North Americans often used burning as a form of execution, against members of other tribes or white settlers during the 18th and 19th centuries. Roasting over a slow fire was a customary method.[97] {See Captives in American Indian Wars}

In Massachusetts, there are two known cases of burning at the stake. First, in 1681, a slave named Maria tried to kill her owner by setting his house on fire, she was convicted of arson and burned at the stake in Roxbury.[98] Concurrently, a slave named Jack, convicted in a separate arson case, was hanged at a nearby gallows, and after death his body was thrown into the fire with that of Maria. Second, in 1755, a group of slaves had conspired and killed their owner, with servants Mark and Phillis executed for his murder. Mark was hanged and his body gibbeted, and Phillis burned at the stake, at Cambridge.[99]

In New York, several burnings at the stake are recorded, particularly following suspected slave revolt plots; in 1708, one woman was burnt and one man hanged. In the aftermath of the New York Slave Revolt of 1712, 20 people were burnt (one of the leaders slowly roasted, before he died after 10 hours of torture[100]) and during the alleged slave conspiracy of 1741, at least 13 slaves were burnt at the stake.[101]

Bartolomé de las Casas, a 16th-century eyewitness to the brutal subjugation of the Native Americans by the Spanish conquistadores, has left a particularly harrowing description of how roasting alive was a favoured technique of repression:[102]

They usually dealt with the chieftains and nobles in the following way: they made a grid of rods which they placed on forked sticks, then lashed the victims to the grid and lighted a smoldering fire underneath, so that little by little, as those captives screamed in despair and torment, their souls would leave them. I once saw this, when there were four or five nobles lashed on grids and burning; I seem even to recall that there were two or three pairs where others were burning, and because they uttered such loud screams that they disturbed the captain's sleep, he ordered them to be strangled. And the constable, who was worse than an executioner, did not want to obey that order (and I know the name of that constable and know his relatives in Seville), but instead put a stick over the victims' tongues, so they could not make a sound, and he stirred up the fire, but not too much, so that they roasted slowly, as he liked.

The last known burning by the Spanish Colonial government in Latin America was of Mariana de Castro, in Lima, Peru[why?] in February 1732.[103]

British West Indies[edit]

In 1760, the slave rebellion known as Tacky's War broke out in Jamaica. Apparently, some of the defeated rebels were burned alive, while others were gibbeted alive, left to die of thirst and starvation.[104]

In 1774, nine African slaves at Tobago were found complicit of murdering a white man. Eight of them had first their right arms chopped off, and were then burned alive bound to stakes, according to the report of an eyewitness.[105]

Dutch Suriname[edit]

In 1855 the Dutch abolitionist and historian Julien Wolbers spoke to the Anti Slavery Society in Amsterdam. Painting a dark picture of the condition of slaves in Suriname, he mentions in particular that as late as in 1853, just two years previously, "three Negroes were burnt alive".[106]

Greek War of Independence[edit]

The Greek War of Independence in the 1820s contained several instances of death by burning, and historian William St. Clair offers several examples in his That Greece Might Still Be Free. For example, when the Greeks in April 1821 captured a corvette near Hydra, the Greeks chose to roast to death the 57 Turkish crew members, after the fall of Tripolitsa in September 1821, European officers were horrified to note that not only were Turks suspected of hiding money being slowly roasted after having had their arms and legs cut off but, in one instance, three Turkish children were roasted over a fire while their parents were forced to watch. On their part, the Turks committed many similar acts; for example, in retaliation they gathered up Greeks in Constantinople, throwing several of them into huge ovens, baking them to death.[107]

Islamic countries[

The burning of the Cathar heretics
Jews burned to death in the Strasbourg massacre
The burning of a 16th-century Dutch Anabaptist, Anneken Hendriks, who was charged by the Spanish Inquisition with heresy.
Native Americans scalping and roasting their prisoners, published in 1873
Systematik - Dokumente

2.7. - Wirkungs- und Forschungsgeschichte

1. VerfasserHauptsachtitelErscheinungsjahrIdent
Koopmann, Helmut Syphilis : wie ein Wort Nietzsche zu einer Krankheit verhalf, an der er nicht litt, und Thomas Mann zu einem Romanstoff, den es sonst kaum gegeben hätte. 34793
Weigelin-Schwiedrzik, Susanne Das Leben im Schein als Ziel : Lu Xuns "Wilde Gräser" und Nietzsches "Also sprach Zarathustra". 33410
Kolleg Friedrich Nietzsche : Programm 2017.201736358
Andrade, André Dias de Negatividade e produção: elementos para uma teoria do desejo em Deleuze. 201736707
Battersby, Christine Female creativity ans temporal discontinuity : slips ans skips of remembrace in Nietzsche and Freud.201736559
Bevilacqua, Giuseppe "Oh Mensch!" da Friedrich Nietzsche a Gustav Mahler. 201736484
Bishop, Paul On the blissful islands with Nietzsche & Jung : in the shadow of the superman.201735792
Bongiovanni, Valeria La Weltanschauung di Nietzsche nei "Dialoghi con Leucò" die Cesare Pavese. 201736215
Brusotti, Marco "Das Neue und Immergleiche" : Benjamin, Nietzsche und die ewige Wiederkehr.201736571
Cammerinesi, Piero Storia di un incontro : Rudolf Steiner e Friedrich Nietzsche / [Prefazio: Marino Freschi].201736510
Chamat, Natalie Also träumte Zarathustra : Walter Benjamin, Friedrich Nietzsche und der Traum.201736048
Cheng, Lin Die frühe literarische Rezeption von Nietzsches "Zarathustra" in China. 201736054
Christen, Felix Zu Begriff und Verfahren des Kommentars bei Nietzsche und Adorno. 201736549
Conterno, Chiara Max Kommerell : Nietzsche e la tradizione dell'inno.201736311
Dellinger, Jakob "all seine Konstruktionen sind aporetische Begriffe" : Eine Adornosche Perspektive auf Nietzsches 'Perspektivismus'.201736546
Erbsmehl, Hansdieter "Habt Ihr noch eine Photographie von mir?" : Friedrich Nietzsche in seinen fotografischen Bildnissen.201736375
Erhard, Dominik Also das hat Nietzsche so nie gesagt. 201736077
Ewen, Jens Erzählter Pluralismus : Thomas Manns Ironie als Sprache der Moderne.201735870
Ferron, Isabella Mythos und Poetik bei Nietzsche und Pavese. 201736312
Gottwald, Herwig Genie und Dämon : zu Stefan Zweigs Nietzsche-Rezeption.201736309
He, Lianhua Ästhetik der Historie : die Nietzsche-Rezeption bei Heiner Müller am Beispiel von "Mommsens Block".201736314
Heit, Helmut Wege zur Metanoia : Nietzsches Signifikanz für die Schriftstellerei in Ost und West.201736044
Lelis, Leondro As potências do simulacro: Deleuze com Nietzsche. 201736709
Li, Shuangzhi "Dekadent und Dekadenz-Kritiker in einem" : zur narzisstischen Körper-Ästhetik bei Nietzsche und Thomas Mann.201736047
Livry, Anatoly Le ménadisme créatif de Nabokov. 201736269
Maintz, Christian Briefe deutscher Denker : Heute: Friedrich Nietzsche.201735835
Markwardt, Nils Nietzsche als Erzieher. 201736075
Newmark, Catherine "Alles muss sterben oder sich entwickeln" : Was verbindet Nietzsche mit heutigen Transhumanisten? ; Gespräch mit Stefan Lorenz Sorgner / von Catherine Newmark.201736074
Newmark, Catherine "Nietzsche ist Protofaschist" : Gespräch mit Bernhard H. F. Taureck / von Catherine Newmark.201736073
Papp, Ágnes Klára Magyar bűn - madyar bűnhődés - Dosztojevszkij és Nietzsche "vitája" Móricz "Sáraranyában". 201736639
Pelloni, Gabriella Zarathustras "Kunst der Gebärde" : von Nietzsches Gebärdenbegriff zu Max Kommerells Sprachgebärde.201736307
Pichler, Axel "'eine antimetaphysische aber artistische' Philosophie" : Adornos Inanspruchnahme Nietzsches und anderer Quellen in einer Einfügung zur "Ästhetischen Theorie".201736548
Ponzi, Mauro Oragnizing pessimism. 201735695
Saar, Martin "Die Postmoderne ist nicht postfaktisch". 201736076
Saar, Martin "Die Postmoderne ist nicht postfaktisch". 201736076
Scheibenberger, Sarah "Destruktion der Ästhetik"? Agamben als Leser von Nietzsche in 'L'uomo senza contenuto'.201735944
Schiffermüller, Isolde Nietzsche und Kafka : über Menschen, Affen und Artisten.201736308
Schmidt, Bertram Gegenwartserfahrung in der Musik : Nietzsche, Georgiades und die Wiener Klassik.201736053
Sommer, Andreas Urs Nietzsche als Drehscheibe in 'die' Moderne? Heideggers Nietzsche in den "Schwarzen Heften" und die Rolle des Philosophen.201735656
Stegmaier, Werner Schreiben / Denken: Nietzsche - Wittgenstein. 201736563
Strinz, Bastian Leopold Zieglers "Zarathustra-Glossen":  Robert Walsers Mikrogramme und Friedrich Nietzsche : Überlegungen zu einer philosophisch-ästhetisch fundierten Poetologie.201736310
Strinz, Bastian Leopold Zieglers "Zarathustra-Glossen":  Robert Walsers Mikrogramme und Friedrich Nietzsche : Überlegungen zu einer philosophisch-ästhetisch fundierten Poetologie.201736310
Verkerk, Willow On love, women, and friendship : reading Nietzsche with Irigaray.201736560
Vidal Mayor, Vanessa Dichtung und dialektische Bilder in den Kierkegaard-Büchern Adornos. 201736547
Welshon, Rex Nietzsche and Bernard Williams : pessimism, naturalism, and truth.201735886
Xu, Yin Literarischer Stil als Merkmal der wissenschaftlichen Prosa - Nietzsches Lehre vom großen Stil und deren praktische Umsetzung in Freuds Arbeit. 201736050
Zellini, Susanna Lo stile come forma del pensiero : esperimenti della forma breve in Nietzsche e Adorno.201736313
Zhang, Ruoyu Die Nietzsche-Rezeption im Bennschen Frühwerk am Beispiel des Gedichts "Levkoienwelle" (1925). 201736045
Zimmermann, Rolf Ankommen in der Republik : Thomas Mann, Nietzsche und die Demokratie.201736649
Kolleg Friedrich Nietzsche : Programm 2016.201636357
Abel, Günter Josef Simon [gestorben]. 201635731
Ansell-Pearson, Keith Naturalism as a joyfull science : Nietzsche, Deleuze, and the art of life.201636682
Bürger, Peter Sartre, ein Nietzscheaner? 201635375
Babich, Babette Towards Nietzsche's 'critical' theory - science, art, life and creative economics. 201635713
Beccari, Marcos O cotidiano estético: considerações sobre a estetização do mundo. 201636669
Beccari, Marcos O cotidiano estético: considerações sobre a estetização do mundo. 201636669
Bernhardt, Oliver Gestalt und Geschichte Savonarolas in der deutschsprachigen Literatur : von der Frühen Neuzeit bis zur Gegenwart.201635338
Birkner, Nina Herr und Knecht in der literarischen Diskussion seit der Aufklärung : Figurationen interdependenter Herrschaft.201635328
Bloch, Peter André Der Teil und das Ganze : Eine literaische Blütenlese über Kreativität und Selbstfindung. Die erhöhte Präzisierung  der Phantasie : Illustrationen in Collagen und Bildmontagen / Martin Schwarz.201635482
Bloch, Peter André Zarathustras Wiederkehr : Hermann Hesses Beziehung zu Friedrich Nietzsche.201634736
Boniatti, André Apontamentos sobre a presença do pensamento de Nietzsche na poesia de Alberto Caeiro. 201635261
Boscaglia, Fabrizio Nietzsche, Pessoa e o islão : notas sobre a recepção de "Der Antichrist" por Fernando Pessoa.201635258
Bouveresse, Jacques Nietzsche contre Foucault : sur la vérité, la connaissance et le pouvoir.201636010
Brömsel, Sven Chamberlain contra Nietzsche oder: Der streitbare Bischof der Wagner-Gemeinde. 201635634
Brinks, John Dieter Der Meteor : Harry Graf Kesslers Nietzsche-Erlebnis.201635892
Brose, Karl Eigendenken : Nietzsches Spuren, Adornos Schatten / hrsg. von Taeyoung Lee-Brose.201635587
Bruder-Bezzel, Almuth Lebenskunst und schöpferische Kraft bei Alfred Adler und Nietzsche. 201636152
Bruns, Oliver Ansätze zu einer politischen Philosophie bei Nietzsche im Spiegel des politischen Denkens Hannah Arendts. 201635442
Cardiello, Antonio O devir-pagão e o regresso aos deuses. 201635256
Chaves, Ernani O poeta, a mentira, o fingimento. 201635263
Constâncio, João Pessoa e Nietzsche: sobre "não ser nada". 201635259
Corriero, Emilio Carlo Il Nietzsche italiano : la 'morte di Dio' e la filosofia italiana del secondo Novecento / pref. di Gianni Vattimo.201635964
Curti, Luca Svevo e Schopenhauer : rilettura di "Una vita". - Seconda ed.201635378
Dănilă, Simion L-a cunoscut Elena Văcărescu pe Friedrich Nietzsche? 201634951
Dannenberg, Jorah "Why?" gets no answer: Paul Katsafanas's "Agency and the foundations of ethics". 201636698
Dastur, Françoise Fink lecteur de Nietzsche : la question du dépassement de la métaphysique.201635943
Deville, Yves Mit Leib und Seele wider den philosophischen Irrationalismus : anlässlich der Übersetzung von Harichs Nietzsche-Streitschrift ins Französische.201635301
Dry, Graham Nietzsche-Kult und das Recht auf neue Schönheit: Peter Behrens und die Verlagseinbände der Darmstädter Künstlerkolonie 1899-1914.201635192
Ellermann, Karin "- ich habe ihn nie gekannt." : Eine nicht stattgefundene Begegnung zwischen Elsa Asenijeff und Friedrich Nietzsche.201635336
Faustino, Marta "Ainsi l'œuvre d'art est la suprême explication de la vie" : O ideal estético de Nietzsche e Pessoa.201635266
Feist, Peter Wechselseitige Fehlwahrnehmungen der Kontrahenten : der Streit um das marxistische Nietzsche-Bild zwischen Heinz Pepperle und Wolfgang Harich in der Zeitschrift "Sinn und Form", 1986/1987.201635300
Ferraro, Gianfranco "Inter nos" : elementos para uma arqueologia do si em Nietzsche e Pessoa.201635267
Freitas, Filipa de Nietzsche, Kierkegaard e Pessoa: a existência do poeta. 201635262
Friedrich, Orsolya Was man aus Nietzsches und Foucaults Werken in Bezug auf medizinethische Debatten lernen kann. 201634841
Gödde, Günter Nietzsches und Freuds Psychologien im Vergleich. 201636151
Günther, Michael Hitler und Nietzsche. Oder wie ein Philosoph doch noch Geschichte machte : Eine kriminalsoziologische Studie.201635418
Giacóia Júnior, Oswaldo "Única é a condição do homem na linguagem". 201635260
Gross, Marek Nietzsche, Descartes und die große Sehnsucht nach Gretchen : über Durs Grünbeins Poetik im Kontext von Nietzsches Philosophie.201635053
Hohendahl, Peter Uwe Critic or prophet? The George circle reads Nietzsche. 201635380
Huddleston, Andrew Normativity and the will to power: challenges for a Nietzschean constitutivism.201636699
Jean, Grégori Le courant souterain de la métaphysique : Schopenhauer en marge de l'histoire de l'être ; présentation d'in texte de Michel Henry.201636217
Julião, José Nicolao Nietzsche entre a Pólis Grega e o Terceiro Reich Alemão. 201636438
Kühn, Rolf "Wir, die Guten, die Glücklichen ..." : Eine radikal phänomenologische Nietzschelektüre im Anschluss an Michel Henry.201636140
Katsafanas, Paul Response to Bernard Reginster, Jorah Dannenberg, and Andrew Huddleston. 201636700
Kaufmann, Sebastian Nietzsche in Heideggers "Schwarzen Heften" seit 1931/32. 201634950
Kenyah-Damptey, Benedict Nietzsche/Foucault : die Funktion des 'spezifischen Intellektuellen' im Werk Michel Foucaults im Hinblick auf das Denken des Politischen.201635443
Kim, Jyunghyun Nietzsche und die koreanische Geistesgeschichte am Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts : zur Auseinandersetzung zwischen Nietzscheanismus und Tolstoismus.201635447
Klie, Hans-Peter "Wir Metaphysiker" : Nietzsche, Wittgenstein und de Chirico im Trialog.201636144
Kornhaber, David The birth of theater from the spirit of philosophy : Nietzsche and the modern drama.201635815
Kulesza, Kamila Sommatologia post-Nietzscheańska : substancjalizacia języka w poststrukturalistycznej i postmodernistycznej teorii literatury.201635492
Kupczyńska, Kalina Verwechselt uns vor allem nicht: Nitsch gegen Nietzsche. 201635054
Kuzma, Joseph D. The eroticization of distance : Nietzsche, Blanchot, and the legacy of courtly love.201635961
LaMothe, Kimerer L. The art of affirmation. 201636092
Lecznar, Adam Shut your eyes and see: digesting the past with Nietzsche and Joyce. 201635660
Lesmeister, Roman "Werde der, der du bist!" : Nietzsches Spuren in C. G. Jungs Verständis von Selbst und Individuation.201636153
Liggieri, Kevin Lebenskunst als biotechnologische Autooperation : Peter Sloterdijks Nietzsche-Lektüre.201636141
Lohwasser, Diana Nietzsche und der Französische Existenzialismus. 201636138
Lourenço, Eduardo Nietzsche e Pessoa. 201635253
Luchte, James Daggers and spears : Lu Xun and Nietzsche on cultural revolution.201634671
Marton, Scarlett Reaearch forum : International Nietzsche Research Group in Brazil: GEN-Nietzsche Studies Group.201636701
Marton, Scarlett Reaearch forum : International Nietzsche Research Group in Brazil: GEN-Nietzsche Studies Group.201636701
Massafferri Salles, Lucio Lauro B. Vestígios da antiga sofística em Jacques Derrida. 201636663
Matuszewski, Krzysztof Michela Onfray'a summa Nietzscheana. 201635499
Mayer Branco, Maria João Notas sobre a "estética não-aristotélica" de Nietzsche e Pessoa. 201635265
Molder, Maria Filomena A diferença entre outrar-se e tornar-se naquilo que se é. 201635264
Ohana, David Trailing Nietzsche: Gershom Sholem and the sabbatean dialectics. 201635744
Pérez López, Pablo Javier Nietzsche em Pessoa : quatro referências inéditas e um quadro geral de presenças e leituras.201635255
Peters, Michael A. Derrida, pedagogy and the calculation of the subject. 201634718
Pizarro, Jerónimo Nietzsche e Pessoa: doze textos. 201635269
Reginster, Bernard Comments on Paul Katsafanas's "Agency and the foudations of ethics : Nietzschean constitutivism". 201636697
Reimann, Andreas Poeten-Museum : Weimar-Gedichte / mit Zeichnungen von Rainer Ilg.201635640
Remley, William L. Nietzsche's concept of "ressentiment" as the psychological structure for Sartre's theory of anti-Semitism. 201635077
Restucci, Marco Dioniso a New Orleans : Nietzsche e il tragico nel jazz.201635526
Ribeiro, Fernando Pessoa e Nietzsche: um ensaio sobre a pluralidade do sujeito. 201635268
Rotella, Ivan Freud o Nietzsche : apparenti assonanze e incompatibilità etiche.201635523
Ryan, Bartholomew "Orpheu" e os filhos de Nietzsche: caos e cosmopolitismo / [Transl.: Marta Faustino].201635254
Sátiro, Angélica Nietzsche, excesivamente humano : Teatro filosófico sobre creatividad.201635665
Schmaus, Thomas Nietzsches letzter Mensch als transhumanistische Dystopie. 201635720
Schmid, Josef Schopenhauer - Nietzsche - Wagner : Theodor Lessings Inbegriff moderner deutscher Philosophie.201635319
Schmidt, Jochen Der Mythos 'Wille zur Macht' : Nietzsches Gesamtwerk und der Nietzsche-Kult : eine historische Kritik.201635958
Seifert, Rita Mussolini und Weimar. 201635632
Shea IV, George W. Nietzsche and Habermas on "Wille zur Macht" : from a metaphysical to a post-metaphysical interpretation of life.201635715
Silveira Detoni, Vicente de Mal-estar da história no Brasil? : Friedrich Nietzsche e a renovação do regime historiográfico oitocentista na primeira república.201635946
Sonneberg, Sara-Marie Nietzsche nackt. 201635249
Sooväli, Jaanus Thinking the future: criticism and transformation in Nietzsche and Derrida. 201635716
Stegmaier, Werner Orientierung im Nihilismus - Luhmann meets Nietzsche. 201635297
Steinmann, Michael "Tot vor Unsterblichkeit" : Lebenskunst und Säkularisierung in Nietzsches "Ecce homo" und Heideggers "Sein und Zeit".201636137
Stiegler, Barbara Le demi-hommage de Michel Foucault à la généalogie nietzschéenne. 201635849
Straka, Barbara Philosophie, Kunst und Leben : zu einer Ausstellung von Hans-Peter Klie in Naumburg (2014).201636145
Vogel, Max Werner Chronik des Nietzsche-Kreises : Versuch einer Rekonstruktion. 3., erw. Aufl.201635454
Voigt, Kirsten Claudia Joseph Beuys liest Friedrich Nietzsche. Das autopoietische Subjekt : Von der Artistenmetaphysik zur Freiheitswissenschaft.201635891
Wolf, Jean-Claude Zwischen Rechtfertigung durch Gnade und Rechtfertigung durch Schaffen : zur Religionsphilosophie von Nikolai Berdiajew.201635437
Zenith, Richard Uma leitura a Nietzschiana de Pessoa e os heterónimos. 201635257
Ziegler, Thomas Die F.N.-Schlaufe : Ernstes und Heiteres aus dem Leben des fabelhaften Friedrich Nietzsche / ein Bilderbuch von Thomas Ziegler. Mit einem Vorw. von Andreas Urs Sommer.201636245
Zirfas, Jörg Optionen : Wissens-, Macht- und Selbstverhältnisse bei Michel Foucault und Wilhelm Schmid.201636139
Zirfas, Jörg Optionen : Wissens-, Macht- und Selbstverhältnisse bei Michel Foucault und Wilhelm Schmid.201636139
Kolleg Friedrich Nietzsche : Programm 2015.201533856
Alessiato, Elena "L'evento del secolo" Friedrich Nietzsche e Thomas Mann.201534551
Anjos, Augusto dos Soneto (A Frederico Nietzsche). 201536384
Ansell-Pearson, Keith Questions of the subject in Nietzsche and Foucault : a reading of "Dawn".201535164
Azzarà, Stefano G.

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