Essay About Global Warming Effects On The Environment

Global Warming Essay: Environmental Effects

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     The greenhouse effect and global warming are issues that are talked about by geologists
all the time. The greenhouse effect is a natural process that keeps the earth at temperatures that
are livable. Energy from the sun warms the earth when its heat rays are absorbed by greenhouse
gasses and become trapped in the atmosphere. Some of the most common greenhouse gasses are
water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane. If there were no greenhouse gasses, very few rays
would be absorbed and the earth would be extremely cold. When too many rays are absorbed, the
earth?s atmosphere starts to warm, which leads to global warming. Global warming can lead to
many problems that affects the environment in which we live.

     In order to talk about global warming, we must first learn what causes the greenhouse
effect. A lot of the rays from the sun are absorbed by water vapor that is naturally in our
atmosphere. Water vapor accounts for ?80 percent of natural greenhouse warming. The
remaining 20 percent is due to other gasses that are present in very small amounts? (Murck,
Skinner and Porter 488). Carbon dioxide is also a big absorber of the sun?s heat rays. Humans
can cause a lot of carbon dioxide to be released. Every time we burn fossil fuels, we release more
carbon dioxide. Emissions from cars also increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere. If there is more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere more rays from the sun are
absorbed. This will cause the atmosphere and the earth?s temperature to warm. The warming of
the earth will cause the oceans to become warmer. When they heat up, more water is evaporated,
causing more carbon dioxide to be released into the atmosphere. Once this process starts, it is
extremely hard to control. If the temperature keeps rising, more carbon dioxide will be released.
Another greenhouse gas is methane: ?Methane absorbs infrared radiation 25 times more
effectively than carbon dioxide, making it an important greenhouse gas despite its relatively low
concentration? (490). There have been many studies on how methane is released into the
atmosphere. Methane in the atmosphere is ?generated by biological activity related to rice
cultivation, leaks in domestic and industrial gaslines, and the digestive process of domestic
livestock, especially cattle? (490).

     An environmental effect of global warming is the fact that higher temperatures will lead to
a change in the water cycle. Some places may experience more rain. Warmer temperatures will
cause a greater amount of evaporation from lakes, rivers, and oceans. In some areas this could be

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Environmental Effects         Global Warming         Carbon Dioxide         Rays         Greenhouse Effect         Amounts        




good, and in others it could be considered bad. In northern regions of the United States, an
increase in the temperature and amount of rain could actually extend the growing season of crops.
This would in turn mean more money for farmers in the northern region. It could also hurt some
farmers. Too much rain is bad for some crops. Certain areas will actually get less rain, which
would lead to more droughts and have a negative impact on crops. Warm and wet weather is
usually a factor that promotes tropical storms. Global warming would lead to tropical storms?
appearing with greater frequency. More rain will also force plant life to adjust. Forests and plant
life migrate naturally, but scientists say that global warming would cause them to migrate at a
much faster rate. If the climate changes the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change says,
?some forest species in North America will shift by as much as 300 miles to the north?
(www.pirg.org/enviro/global_w/fact.htm). If a region is getting more rain and plants on the
border of that region need rain to survive, they will naturally begin growing in the new region.

     The Environmental Media Services Organization has found that the greenhouse effect
?could drive global temperatures up as much as 6 degrees by the year 2100 - an increase in heat
comparable to the 10 degree warming that ended the last ice age?
(www.ems.org/climate/sub2_html). If a ten degree warming was the factor that ended the ice
age, imagine what another warming by about that same amount could do. Scientists believe that a
warming of only 6 degrees would cause glaciers to melt at a high rate. This would cause an
increase in the level of the oceans. According to the article ?Turning up the Heat: How Global
Warming Threatens Life in the Sea,? coastal cities and islands would be in danger of flooding if
the ocean levels rose: ?Only a 1-cm rise in sea level can erode a full 1 meter of beach? (Berntson
and Mathews-Amos www.worldwildelife.org/news/pups/wwf_ocean.htm). Sea ice would also be
susceptible to melting, which would raise the water level even more.

     Global warming will not just make sea levels rise, it will also affect sea life. Corals ?are
intolerant of temperatures just a few degrees warmer than usual? (ibid.). Small increases in the
temperature can kill corals. There have been problems with corals dying in the past few years
because of increased water temperatures. Other marine life may migrate northward or southward
because the waters are warmer. The warm water would make them think that they were in their
natural habitat, when they were actually migrating toward the poles. Food would be scarce in
their new habitat.     

     Patterns of the circulation of sea water are disturbed by global warming. Cold water
moves along the sea floor towards the equator and warm water around the equator moves toward
the poles across the surface of the ocean. It is known as thermohaline circulation. It is a very
important process concerning ocean life. This circulation process brings oxygenated water to the
sea floor. If this did not happen, ?water along the sea floor would become depleted of the oxygen
organisms need to survive? (ibid.).     

     Fish, such as salmon, are also sensitive to the temperature of the water. During the
summer when the water is warm, salmon have a higher metabolic rate. During the winter months,
their metabolism slows down, which is good because less food is available. With global warming
and increased water temperatures, salmon would have a higher metabolic rate, even if it were
during the winter. Less food would be available for them and many salmon would die.

     Another impact of global warming will be that some diseases are likely to be spread more
easily. Mosquitoes are a major carrier of tropical diseases. They are commonly known for
carrying malaria, cholera, and dengue fever. Malaria outbreaks are usually confined to ?where the
minimum winter temperature reaches no lower than 16 [degrees Celsius],? according to the World
Wide Fund for Nature, an independent conservation organization
(www.panda.org/climate/climate_docs/health_factsheet/malria.htm). Scientists are beginning to
notice that malaria outbreaks are occurring outside these places. They are attributing this to
increased temperatures from global warming. Places such as California, Texas, Florida, Michigan,
and New York have had more cases of malaria. People from these states know that the summers
have been very hot and humid lately. Malaria mosquitoes thrive in hot and humid weather.
Increased temperatures and more rain in some areas will cause hot and humid weather, which will
allow for mosquitoes to migrate to new places and spread the disease. A study suggests that
?malaria transmission would increase from 45% of the globe to 60%, if atmospheric levels of
greenhouse gases reach concentrations equivalent to a doubling of CO2 since the industrial
revolution? (ibid.). Cholera and dengue fever are also carried by mosquitoes and thrive in warm
and moist climates. As with malaria, more cholera and dengue fever outbreaks would occur
because of migrating mosquitoes.

     As stated earlier, the warming of the oceans will increase the amount of carbon dioxide in
the atmosphere and will make global warming a problem of increasing severity. There are other
ways that this happens too. As the weather becomes warmer, more organic matter in the ground
will be decomposed. This causes carbon dioxide to be released into the atmosphere: ?If average
temperatures would rise by .3 degrees C per decade, soils will release an amount of CO2 equal to
nearly 20 percent of the projected amount released by combustion of fossil fuels? (Murck, Skinner
and Porter 495 ). Gas hydrates will also decompose with warmer temperatures. Gas hydrates are
?icelike solids in which molecules of gas, mainly methane, are locked in the structure of water?
and are usually found in frozen soil or in ocean sediments (495). Scientists have found that ?gas
hydrates worldwide hold a total of 10,000 billion metric tons of carbon, twice the amount
contained in all the known coal, gas, and oil reserves on the land? (495). When temperatures
increase, frozen soil will melt and release gas hydrates, and hydrates from ocean sediment will also
break down. Because of this, more methane and carbon will be released into the atmosphere,
making the greenhouse effect even stronger. This will damage our environment even more.

     Global warming is becoming a major problem as we move to the 21st century and beyond.
When more greenhouse gasses like carbon dioxide and methane are released, they trap heat rays
and keep them in our atmosphere. This causes an increase in temperature. Increases in
temperature can do a lot of damage, even in small increases. Only a few degrees ended the ice
age thousands of years ago. Another warming like that can have huge environmental effects.
Changes in temperature will upset water cycles. Some areas will get more precipitation, some
will get less. A warming of a few degrees would cause glaciers and sea ice to melt. This would
lead to ocean levels rising and would damage coastal cities and islands. It would also cause a
disruption in different species living in the ocean and increase the levels of some disease,
especially ones carried by mosquitoes, which thrive in warm climates. In order to stop global
warming, much has to be done. Although it is very difficult to reverse once the process is started,
global warming has to be stopped if we want to live like we are now. Emission of fossil fuels by
humans is a big factor in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Controlling these
emissions is one of the first of many steps that we must take in order to combat global warming.
If it is not controlled, problems such as the aforementioned ones, along with others, will definitely
disrupt our living patterns.



Works Cited

Berntson, Ewann, ?Turning up the Heat: How Global Warming Threatens Life in the Sea.? World
     Wildelife Fund and the Marine Conservation Biology Institute. 20 Jan. 2000



This article is primarily about effects during the 21st century. For longer-term effects, see Long-term effects of global warming. See also Effects of global warming on humans.

The effects of global warming are the environmental and social changes caused (directly or indirectly) by human emissions of greenhouse gases. There is a scientific consensus that climate change is occurring, and that human activities are the primary driver.[1] Many impacts of climate change have already been observed, including glacier retreat,[2] changes in the timing of seasonal events[2] (e.g., earlier flowering of plants),[3] and changes in agricultural productivity.[2]

Future effects of climate change will vary depending on climate change policies[4] and social development.[5] The two main policies to address climate change are reducing human greenhouse gas emissions (climate change mitigation) and adapting to the impacts of climate change.[6]Geoengineering is another policy option.[6]

Near-term climate change policies could significantly affect long-term climate change impacts.[4][7] Stringent mitigation policies might be able to limit global warming (in 2100) to around 2 °C or below, relative to pre-industrial levels.[8] Without mitigation, increased energy demand and extensive use of fossil fuels[9] might lead to global warming of around 4 °C.[10][11] Higher magnitudes of global warming would be more difficult to adapt to,[12] and would increase the risk of negative impacts.[13]

Definitions

See also: attribution of recent climate change

In this article, "climate change" means a change in climate that persists over a sustained period of time.[14][15] The World Meteorological Organization defines this time period as 30 years.[14] Examples of climate change include increases in global surface temperature (global warming), changes in rainfall patterns, and changes in the frequency of extreme weather events. Changes in climate may be due to natural causes, e.g., changes in the sun's output, or due to human activities, e.g., changing the composition of the atmosphere.[16] Any human-induced changes in climate will occur against a background of natural climatic variations[16] and of variations in human activity such as population growth on shores or in arid areas which increase or decrease climate vulnerability.[17]

Also, the term "anthropogenic forcing" refers to the influence exerted on a habitat or chemical environment by humans, as opposed to a natural process.[18]

Temperature changes

This article breaks down some of the impacts of climate change according to different levels of future global warming. This way of describing impacts has, for instance, been used in the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Assessment Reports on climate change.[20] The instrumental temperature record shows global warming of around 0.6 °C during the 20th century.[21] In a study carried out by David R. Easterling et al., trends were observed over a period of time. “It is clear from the observed record that there has been an increase in the global mean temperature of about 0.6℃ since the start of the 20th century and that this increase is associated with a stronger warming in daily minimum temperatures than in maximums leading to a reduction in the diurnal temperature range.”[22]

SRES emissions scenarios

The future level of global warming is uncertain, but a wide range of estimates (projections) have been made.[23] The IPCC's "SRES" scenarios have been frequently used to make projections of future climate change.[24]:22–24 The SRES scenarios are "baseline" (or "reference") scenarios, which means that they do not take into account any current or future measures to limit GHG emissions (e.g., the UNFCCC's Kyoto Protocol and the Cancún agreements).[25] Emissions projections of the SRES scenarios are broadly comparable in range to the baseline emissions scenarios that have been developed by the scientific community.[23][26]

In the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, changes in future global mean temperature were projected using the six SRES "marker" emissions scenarios.[27] Emissions projections for the six SRES "marker" scenarios are representative of the full set of forty SRES scenarios.[28] For the lowest emissions SRES marker scenario ("B1" – see the SRES article for details on this scenario), the best estimate for global mean temperature is an increase of 1.8 °C (3.2 °F)[27] by the end of the 21st century. This projection is relative to global temperatures at the end of the 20th century.[29] The "likely" range (greater than 66% probability, based on expert judgement)[30] for the SRES B1 marker scenario is 1.1–2.9 °C (2.0–5.2 °F).[27] For the highest emissions SRES marker scenario (A1FI), the best estimate for global mean temperature increase is 4.0 °C (7.2 °F), with a "likely" range of 2.4–6.4 °C (4.3–11.5 °F).[27]

The range in temperature projections partly reflects (1) the choice of emissions scenario, and (2) the "climate sensitivity".[24]:22–24 For (1), different scenarios make different assumptions of future social and economic development (e.g., economic growth, population level, energy policies), which in turn affects projections of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.[24]:22–24 The projected magnitude of warming by 2100 is closely related to the level of cumulative emissions over the 21st century (i.e. total emissions between 2000–2100).[31] The higher the cumulative emissions over this time period, the greater the level of warming is projected to occur.[31]

(2) reflects uncertainty in the response of the climate system to past and future GHG emissions, which is measured by the climate sensitivity.[24]:22–24 Higher estimates of climate sensitivity lead to greater projected warming, while lower estimates of climate sensitivity lead to less projected warming.[32]

Over the next several millennia, projections suggest that global warming could be irreversible.[33] Even if emissions were drastically reduced, global temperatures would remain close to their highest level for at least 1,000 years (see the later section on irreversibilities).[34][35]

Projected warming in context

Global surface temperature for the past 5.3 million years as inferred from cores of ocean sediments taken all around the global ocean. The last 800,000 years are expanded in the lower half of the figure (image credit: NASA).[36]

Scientists have used various "proxy" data to assess past changes in Earth's climate (paleoclimate).[37] Sources of proxy data include historical records (such as farmers' logs), tree rings, corals, fossil pollen, ice cores, and ocean and lake sediments.[37] Analysis of these data suggest that recent warming is unusual in the past 400 years, possibly longer.[38] By the end of the 21st century, temperatures may increase to a level not experienced since the mid-Pliocene, around 3 million years ago.[39] At that time, models suggest that mean global temperatures were about 2–3 °C warmer than pre-industrial temperatures.[39] Even a 2 °C rise above the pre-industrial level would be outside the range of temperatures experienced by human civilization.[36][40]

Physical impacts

Main article: Physical impacts of climate change

Seven of these indicators would be expected to increase in a warming world and observations show that they are, in fact, increasing. Three would be expected to decrease and they are, in fact, decreasing.[41]

A broad range of evidence shows that the climate system has warmed.[43] Evidence of global warming is shown in the graphs opposite. Some of the graphs show a positive trend, e.g., increasing temperature over land and the ocean, and sea level rise. Other graphs show a negative trend, e.g., decreased snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere, and declining Arctic sea ice extent. Evidence of warming is also apparent in living (biological) systems.[44]

Human activities have contributed to a number of the observed changes in climate.[45] This contribution has principally been through the burning of fossil fuels, which has led to an increase in the concentration of GHGs in the atmosphere.[46] Another human influence on the climate are sulfur dioxide emissions, which are a precursor to the formation of sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere.[47]

Human-induced warming could lead to large-scale, irreversible, and/or abrupt changes in physical systems.[48][49] An example of this is the melting of ice sheets, which contributes to sea level rise.[50] The probability of warming having unforeseen consequences increases with the rate, magnitude, and duration of climate change.[51]

Effects on weather

Observations show that there have been changes in weather.[52] As climate changes, the probabilities of certain types of weather events are affected.

Changes have been observed in the amount, intensity, frequency, and type of precipitation.[24]:18 Widespread increases in heavy precipitation have occurred, even in places where total rain amounts have decreased. With medium confidence (see footnote 1), IPCC (2012)[55] concluded that human influences had contributed to an increase in heavy precipitation events at the global scale.

Projections of future changes in precipitation show overall increases in the global average, but with substantial shifts in where and how precipitation falls.[24]:24 Projections suggest a reduction in rainfall in the subtropics, and an increase in precipitation in subpolar latitudes and some equatorial regions.[54] In other words, regions which are dry at present will in general become even drier, while regions that are currently wet will in general become even wetter.[54] This projection does not apply to every locale, and in some cases can be modified by local conditions.[54]

Extreme weather

See also: Extreme weather and Tropical cyclone § Global warming

Over most land areas since the 1950s, it is very likely that there have been fewer or warmer cold days and nights.[56] Hot days and nights have also very likely become warmer or more frequent.[56] Human activities have very likely contributed to these trends.[56] There may have been changes in other climate extremes (e.g., floods, droughts and tropical cyclones) but these changes are more difficult to identify.[56]

Projections suggest changes in the frequency and intensity of some extreme weather events.[56] Confidence in projections varies over time.[56]

Near-term projections (2016–2035)

Some changes (e.g., more frequent hot days) will probably be evident in the near term, while other near-term changes (e.g., more intense droughts and tropical cyclones) are more uncertain.[56]

Long-term projections (2081–2100)

Future climate change will be associated with more very hot days and fewer very cold days.[56] The frequency, length and intensity of heat waves will very likely increase over most land areas.[56] Higher growth in anthropogenic GHG emissions will be associated with larger increases in the frequency and severity of temperature extremes.[57]

Assuming high growth in GHG emissions (IPCC scenario RCP8.5), presently dry regions may be affected by an increase in the risk of drought and reductions in soil moisture.[58] Over most of the mid-latitude land masses and wet tropical regions, extreme precipitation events will very likely become more intense and frequent.[56]

Tropical cyclones

At the global scale, the frequency of tropical cyclones will probably decrease or be unchanged.[59] Global mean tropical cyclone maximum wind speed and precipitation rates will likely increase.[59] Changes in tropical cyclones will probably vary by region, but these variations are uncertain.[59]

Effects of climate extremes

The impacts of extreme events on the environment and human society will vary. Some impacts will be beneficial—e.g., fewer cold extremes will probably lead to fewer cold deaths.[60] Overall, however, impacts will probably be mostly negative.[61][62] A rise in temperature will cause the glaciers to melt, when water heats up, it expands, both of these factors contribute to a rise in sea levels which will put people living in lowland areas, for example The Netherlands in danger.

Cryosphere

See also: Retreat of glaciers since 1850

The cryosphere is made up of areas of the Earth which are covered by snow or ice.[63] Observed changes in the cryosphere include declines in Arctic sea ice extent,[64] the widespread retreat of alpine glaciers,[65] and reduced snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere.[66]

Solomon et al. (2007)[67] assessed the potential impacts of climate change on summertime Arctic sea ice extent. Assuming high growth in greenhouse gas emissions (SRES A2), some models projected that Arctic sea ice in the summer could largely disappear by the end of the 21st century.[67] More recent projections suggest that the Arctic summers could be ice-free (defined as ice extent less than 1 million square km) as early as 2025–2030.[68]

During the 21st century, glaciers[69] and snow cover are projected to continue their widespread retreat.[70] In the western mountains of North America, increasing temperatures and changes in precipitation are projected to lead to reduced snowpack.[71] Snowpack is the seasonal accumulation of slow-melting snow.[72] The melting of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets could contribute to sea level rise, especially over long time-scales (see the section on Greenland and West Antarctic Ice sheets).[50]

Changes in the cryosphere are projected to have social impacts.[73] For example, in some regions, glacier retreat could increase the risk of reductions in seasonal water availability.[74] Barnett et al. (2005)[75] estimated that more than one-sixth of the world's population rely on glaciers and snowpack for their water supply.

Oceans

Main article: Effects of global warming on oceans

The role of the oceans in global warming is complex. The oceans serve as a sink for carbon dioxide, taking up much that would otherwise remain in the atmosphere, but increased levels of CO
2 have led to ocean acidification. Furthermore, as the temperature of the oceans increases, they become less able to absorb excess CO
2. The ocean have also acted as a sink in absorbing extra heat from the atmosphere.[76]:4 The increase in ocean heat content is much larger than any other store of energy in the Earth’s heat balance over the two periods 1961 to 2003 and 1993 to 2003, and accounts for more than 90% of the possible increase in heat content of the Earth system during these periods.[77]

Global warming is projected to have a number of effects on the oceans. Ongoing effects include rising sea levels due to thermal expansion and melting of glaciers and ice sheets, and warming of the ocean surface, leading to increased temperature stratification. Other possible effects include large-scale changes in ocean circulation.

Acidification

Main article: Ocean acidification

About one-third of the carbon dioxide emitted by human activity has already been taken up by the oceans.[79] As carbon dioxide dissolves in sea water, carbonic acid is formed, which has the effect of acidifying the ocean, measured as a change in pH. The uptake of human carbon emissions since the year 1750 has led to an average decrease in pH of 0.1 units.[80] Projections using the SRES emissions scenarios suggest a further reduction in average global surface ocean pH of between 0.14 and 0.35 units over the 21st century.

The effects of ocean acidification on the marine biosphere have yet to be documented.[80] Laboratory experiments suggest beneficial effects for a few species, with potentially highly detrimental effects for a substantial number of species.[79] With medium confidence, Fischlin et al. (2007)[81] projected that future ocean acidification and climate change would impair a wide range of planktonic and shallow benthic marine organisms that use aragonite to make their shells or skeletons, such as corals and marine snails (pteropods), with significant impacts particularly in the Southern Ocean.

Oxygen depletion

The amount of oxygen dissolved in the oceans may decline, with adverse consequences for ocean life.[82][83]

Sea level rise

Main article: Current sea level rise

See also: Future sea level

There is strong evidence that global sea level rose gradually over the 20th century.[85] With high confidence, Bindoff et al. (2007)[86] concluded that between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries, the rate of sea level rise increased. Authors of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Synthesis Report (IPCC AR4 SYR, 2007)[21] reported that between the years 1961 and 2003, global average sea level rose at an average rate of 1.8 mm per year (mm/yr), with a range of 1.3–2.3 mm/yr. Between 1993 and 2003, the rate increased above the previous period to 3.1 mm/yr (range of 2.4–3.8 mm/yr). Authors of IPCC AR4 SYR (2007)[21] were uncertain whether the increase in rate from 1993 to 2003 was due to natural variations in sea level over the time period, or whether it reflected an increase in the underlying long-term trend.

There are two main factors that have contributed to observed sea level rise.[85] The first is thermal expansion: as ocean water warms, it expands.[87] The second is from the contribution of land-based ice due to increased melting. The major store of water on land is found in glaciers and ice sheets. Anthropogenic forces very likely (greater than 90% probability, based on expert judgement)[30] contributed to sea level rise during the latter half of the 20th century.[45]

There is a widespread consensus that substantial long-term sea level rise will continue for centuries to come.[88] In their Fourth Assessment Report, the IPCC[89] projected sea level rise to the end of the 21st century using the SRES emissions scenarios. Across the six SRES marker scenarios, sea level was projected to rise by 18 to 59 cm (7.1 to 23.2 in), relative to sea level at the end of the 20th century.[90] Thermal expansion is the largest component in these projections, contributing 70–75% of the central estimate for all scenarios.[91] Due to a lack of scientific understanding, this sea level rise estimate does not include all of the possible contributions of ice sheets (see the section on Greenland and West Antarctic Ice sheets).

An assessment of the scientific literature on climate change was published in 2010 by the US National Research Council (US NRC, 2010).[92] NRC (2010)[92] described the projections in AR4 (i.e. those cited in the above paragraph) as "conservative", and summarized the results of more recent studies. Cited studies suggested a great deal of uncertainty in projections.[92] A range of projections suggested possible sea level rise by the end of the 21st century of between 0.56 and 2 m, relative to sea levels at the end of the 20th century.[92]

Ocean temperature rise

From 1961 to 2003, the global ocean temperature has risen by 0.10 °C from the surface to a depth of 700 m. There is variability both year-to-year and over longer time scales, with global ocean heat content observations showing high rates of warming for 1991–2003, but some cooling from 2003 to 2007.[93] The temperature of the Antarctic Southern Ocean rose by 0.17 °C (0.31 °F) between the 1950s and the 1980s, nearly twice the rate for the world's oceans as a whole.[94] As well as having effects on ecosystems (e.g. by melting sea ice, affecting algae that grow on its underside), warming reduces the ocean's ability to absorb CO
2.[citation needed] It is likely (greater than 66% probability, based on expert judgement)[30] that anthropogenic forcing contributed to the general warming observed in the upper several hundred metres of the ocean during the latter half of the 20th century.[45]

Regions

Main article: Regional effects of global warming

Regional effects of global warming vary in nature. Some are the result of a generalised global change, such as rising temperature, resulting in local effects, such as melting ice. In other cases, a change may be related to a change in a particular ocean current or weather system. In such cases, the regional effect may be disproportionate and will not necessarily follow the global trend.

There are three major ways in which global warming will make changes to regional climate: melting or forming ice, changing the hydrological cycle (of evaporation and precipitation) and changing currents in the oceans and air flows in the atmosphere. The coast can also be considered a region, and will suffer severe impacts from sea level rise.

Observed impacts

With very high confidence, Rosenzweig et al. (2007)[44] concluded that physical and biological systems on all continents and in most oceans had been affected by recent climate changes, particularly regional temperature increases. Impacts include earlier leafing of trees and plants over many regions; movements of species to higher latitudes and altitudes in the Northern Hemisphere; changes in bird migrations in Europe, North America and Australia; and shifting of the oceans' plankton and fish from cold- to warm-adapted communities.[96]

The human influence on the climate can be seen in the geographical pattern of observed warming, with greater temperature increases over land and in polar regions rather than over the oceans.[97]:6 Using models, it is possible to identify the human "signal" of global warming over both land and ocean areas.[97]:6

Projected impacts

Projections of future climate changes at the regional scale do not hold as high a level of scientific confidence as projections made at the global scale.[97]:9 It is, however, expected that future warming will follow a similar geographical pattern to that seen already, with greatest warming over land and high northern latitudes, and least over the Southern Ocean and parts of the North Atlantic Ocean.[98] Nearly all land areas will very likely warm more than the global average.[99]

The Arctic, Africa, small islands and Asianmegadeltas are regions that are likely to be especially affected by climate change.[100]Low-latitude, less-developed areas are at most risk of experiencing negative impacts due to climate change.[101]Developed countries are also vulnerable to climate change.[102] For example, developed countries will be negatively affected by increases in the severity and frequency of some extreme weather events, such as heat waves.[102] In all regions, some people can be particularly at risk from climate change, such as the poor, young children and the elderly.[100][101][103]

Social systems

Main articles: Effects of climate change on humans and Climate change, industry and society

See also: Climate change and gender

The impacts of climate change can be thought of in terms of sensitivity and vulnerability. "Sensitivity" is the degree to which a particular system or sector might be affected, positively or negatively, by climate change and/or climate variability. "Vulnerability" is the degree to which a particular system or sector might be adversely affected by climate change.[104]

The sensitivity of human society to climate change varies. Sectors sensitive to climate change include water resources, coastal zones, human settlements, and human health. Industries sensitive to climate change include agriculture, fisheries, forestry, energy, construction, insurance, financial services, tourism, and recreation.[105][106]

Food supply

Main article: Climate change and agriculture

See also: Food security, Food vs fuel, and 2007–2008 world food price crisis

Climate change will impact agriculture and food production around the world due to: the effects of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere, higher temperatures, altered precipitation and transpiration regimes, increased frequency of extreme events, and modified weed, pest, and pathogen pressure.[107] In general, low-latitude areas are at most risk of having decreased crop yields.[108]

As of 2007, the effects of regional climate change on agriculture have been small.[44] Changes in crop phenology provide important evidence of the response to recent regional climate change.[109] Phenology is the study of natural phenomena that recur periodically, and how these phenomena relate to climate and seasonal changes.[110] A significant advance in phenology has been observed for agriculture and forestry in large parts of the Northern Hemisphere.[44]

Projections

With low to medium confidence, Schneider et al. (2007)[20] projected that for about a 1 to 3 °C increase in global mean temperature (by the years 2090–2100, relative to average temperatures in the years 1990–2000), there would be productivity decreases for some cereals in low latitudes, and productivity increases in high latitudes. With medium confidence, global production potential was projected to:[20]

  • increase up to around 3 °C,
  • very likely decrease above about 3 °C.

Most of the studies on global agriculture assessed by Schneider et al. (2007)[108] had not incorporated a number of critical factors, including changes in extreme events, or the spread of pests and diseases. Studies had also not considered the development of specific practices or technologies to aid adaptation to climate change.[108]

The graphs opposite show the projected effects of climate change on selected crop yields.[112] Actual changes in yields may be above or below these central estimates.[112]

The projections above can be expressed relative to pre-industrial (1750) temperatures.[113] 0.6 °C of warming is estimated to have occurred between 1750 and 1990–2000. Add 0.6 °C to the above projections to convert them from a 1990–2000 to pre-industrial baseline.

Food security

Easterling et al. (2007)[114] assessed studies that made quantitative projections of climate change impacts on food security. It was noted that these projections were highly uncertain and had limitations. However, the assessed studies suggested a number of fairly robust findings. The first was that climate change would likely increase the number of people at risk of hunger compared with reference scenarios with no climate change. Climate change impacts depended strongly on projected future social and economic development. Additionally, the magnitude of climate change impacts was projected to be smaller compared to the impact of social and economic development. In 2006, the global estimate for the number of people undernourished was 820 million.[115] Under the SRES A1, B1, and B2 scenarios (see the SRES article for information on each scenario group), projections for the year 2080 showed a reduction in the number of people undernourished of about 560–700 million people, with a global total of undernourished people of 100–240 million in 2080. By contrast, the SRES A2 scenario showed only a small decrease in the risk of hunger from 2006 levels. The smaller reduction under A2 was attributed to the higher projected future population level in this scenario.

Droughts and agriculture

Some evidence suggests that droughts have been occurring more frequently because of global warming and they are expected to become more frequent and intense in Africa, southern Europe, the Middle East, most of the Americas, Australia, and Southeast Asia.[116] However, other research suggests that there has been little change in drought over the past 60 years.[117] Their impacts are aggravated because of increased water demand, population growth, urban expansion, and environmental protection efforts in many areas.[118] Droughts result in crop failures and the loss of pasture grazing land for livestock.[119]

Health

Main article: Effects of global warming on human health

Human beings are exposed to climate change through changing weather patterns (temperature, precipitation, sea-level rise and more frequent extreme events) and indirectly through changes in water, air and food quality and changes in ecosystems, agriculture, industry and settlements and the economy (Confalonieri et al., 2007:393).[60] According to an assessment of the scientific literature by Confalonieri et al. (2007:393),[60] the effects of climate change to date have been small, but are projected to progressively increase in all countries and regions.

A study by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2009)[120] estimated the effect of climate change on human health. Not all of the effects of climate change were included in their estimates, for example, the effects of more frequent and extreme storms were excluded. Climate change was estimated to have been responsible for 3% of diarrhoea, 3% of malaria, and 3.8% of dengue fever deaths worldwide in 2004. Total attributable mortality was about 0.2% of deaths in 2004; of these, 85% were child deaths.

Projections

With high confidence, authors of the IPCC AR4 Synthesis report[121]:48 projected that climate change would bring some benefits in temperate areas, such as fewer deaths from cold exposure, and some mixed effects such as changes in range and transmission potential of malaria in Africa. Benefits were projected to be outweighed by negative health effects of rising temperatures, especially in developing countries.

With very high confidence, Confalonieri et al. (2007)[60]:393

A summary of climate change impacts
Projected global warming in 2100 for a range of emission scenarios

Global mean surface temperature change since 1880, relative to the 1951–1980 mean. Source: NASA GISS

The graph above shows the average of a set of temperature simulations for the 20th century (black line), followed by projected temperatures for the 21st century based on three greenhouse gas emissions scenarios (colored lines).[19]

This set of graphs show changes in climate indicators over several decades. Each of the different colored lines in each panel represents an independently analyzed set of data. The data come from many different technologies including weather stations, satellites, weather balloons, ships and buoys.[42]
A map of the change in thickness of mountain glaciers since 1970. Thinning in orange and red, thickening in blue.
A map that shows ice concentration on 16 September 2012, along with the extent of the previous record low (yellow line) and the mid-September median extent (black line) setting a new record low that was 18 percent smaller than the previous record and nearly 50 percent smaller than the long-term (1979–2000) average.
This map shows changes in the amount of aragonite dissolved in ocean surface waters between the 1880s and the most recent decade (2003–2012).[78] Historical modeling suggests that since the 1880s, increased CO2 has led to lower aragonite saturation levels (less availability of minerals) in the oceans around the world.[78] The largest decreases in aragonite saturation have occurred in tropical waters.[78] However, decreases in cold areas may be of greater concern because colder waters typically have lower aragonite levels to begin with.[78]
Trends in global average absolute sea level, 1870–2008.[84]
Global ocean heat content from 1955–2012

Temperatures across the world in the 1880s (left) and the 1980s (right), as compared to average temperatures from 1951 to 1980.[95]

Projected changes in average temperatures across the world in the 2050s under three greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios.[19]

Graph of net crop production worldwide and in selected tropical countries. Raw data from the United Nations. [2]
Projected changes in crop yields at different latitudes with global warming. This graph is based on several studies.[111]
Projected changes in yields of selected crops with global warming. This graph is based on several studies.[111]

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