Mhra Bibliography Same Author

MHRA requires that Primary sources and Secondary sources are listed separately in the bibliography.

Primary sources are original materials. These can include newspaper articles, letters, memoirs, autobiographies, speeches, diaries, images, government records etc.

NOTE: Primary sources need to be alphabetically listed separately from secondary sources in your bibliography.

Examples:

First footnote:
Fulbert of Chartres, The Letters and Poems of Fulbert of Chartres, ed. by Frederick Behrends (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976), pp. 100-03 (p.102).

Bibliography:
Fulbert of Chartres, The Letters and Poems of Fulbert of Chartres, ed. by Frederick Behrends (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976)

Secondary sources cite, comment on, or build upon primary sources.

NOTE: Secondary sources need to be alphabetically listed separately from primary sources in your bibliography.

Examples:

First Footnote:
Bonnie Wheeler, Listening to Heloise: The Voice of a Twelfth- Century Woman (New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000), p. 64.

Bibliography:
Wheeler, Bonnie, Listening to Heloise: The Voice of a Twelfth-Century Woman (New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000)

When a book has a single author, or even when it’s co-authored, knowing who to cite is simple. But when each chapter in a book has a different author, referencing gets trickier.

And yet edited books are invaluable when researching an essay. So knowing how to cite a single chapter from a book is vital. In this post, we look at how to do this with MHRA referencing.

Footnote Citations

To cite a source with MHRA referencing, you signal a footnote with a superscript number:

Such as in this sentence, for example.1

Source information is then given in a footnote. For a chapter from an edited book, the details required are:

n. Chapter Author(s), ‘Chapter Title’, in Book Title, ed. by Editor(s) (Place: Publisher, year), chapter page numbers (pinpoint reference).

The pinpoint here is the specific page(s) being cited (preceded by ‘p.’), while the chapter page numbers are the complete range of pages for the essay. For instance:

1. Hugh Wilder, ‘Interpretive Cognitive Ethology’, in Readings in Animal Cognition, ed. by Marc Bekoff and Dale Jamieson (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996), 29-45 (p. 43).

In this case, the chapter runs from page 29 to page 45, while page 43 is cited.

Repeat Citations

If you cite the same chapter again later in your work, you don’t have to repeat the full source information. Instead, you can use ‘ibid.’ for consecutive citations and the author’s surname for non-consecutive citations (plus any relevant page numbers).

In addition, if citing another essay from the same book, you can often refer to the first footnote where the full publication details were given:

1. Hugh Wilder, ‘Interpretive Cognitive Ethology’, in Readings in Animal Cognition, ed. by Marc Bekoff and Dale Jamieson (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996), 29-45 (p. 43).
2. Ibid., p. 32.
3. Randy Thornhill, ‘The Study of Adaptation’, in Readings in Animal Cognition, (see Wilder, above), 107-127 (p. 112).
4. Wilder, pp. 34-35.

If you are citing more than one work by the same author, you should also give a shortened version of the essay title in repeat citations to prevent confusion.

Bibliography

In the bibliography, a chapter from an edited book should be listed as follows:

Surname, First name, ‘Chapter Title’, in Book Title, ed. by Editor(s) (Place: Publisher, year), chapter page numbers

The author’s names are reversed here, and there is no pinpoint or end punctuation. You should then provide full publication information for each essay cited from an edited book:

Thornhill, Randy, ‘The Study of Adaptation’, in Readings in Animal Cognition, ed. by Marc Bekoff and Dale Jamieson (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996), 107-127

Wilder, Hugh, ‘Interpretive Cognitive Ethology’, in Readings in Animal Cognition, ed. by Marc Bekoff and Dale Jamieson (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996), 29-45

As shown here, you should list sources alphabetically by author surname. Do this for each cited source, and you’ll have a nice, tidy reference list.

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